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Article

Trend and Sensitivity Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration in the Senegal River Basin Using NASA Meteorological Data

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Laboratoire Leïdi “Dynamique des Territoires et Développement”, Université Gaston Berger (UGB), Saint-Louis BP 234, Senegal
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UFR S2ATA Sciences Agronomiques, de l’Aquaculture et des Technologies Alimentaires, Université Gaston Berger, Saint-Louis BP 234, Senegal
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Laboratoire LSAO “Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Atmosphère et de l’Océan”, Université Gaston Berger (UGB), Saint-Louis BP 234, Senegal
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HydroSciences Montpellier, University of Montpellier, IRD, CNRS, CC 057, 163 rue Auguste Broussonnet, 34090 Montpellier, France
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Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Agricultural Science Center at Farmington, P.O. Box 1018, Farmington, NM 87499, USA
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UMR G-EAU, AgroParisTech, Cirad, University of Montpellier, IRD, INRAE, Montpellier SupAgro, 34196 Montpellier, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(7), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071957
Received: 16 May 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 10 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evapotranspiration Measurements and Modeling)
Understanding evapotranspiration and its long-term trends is essential for water cycle studies, modeling and for water uses. Spatial and temporal analysis of evapotranspiration is therefore important for the management of water resources, particularly in the context of climate change. The objective of this study is to analyze the trend of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) as well as its sensitivity to climatic variables in the Senegal River basin. Mann-Kendall’s test and Sen’s slope were used to detect trends and amplitude changes in ET0 and climatic variables that most influence ET0. Results show a significant increase in annual ET0 for 32% of the watershed area over the 1984–2017 period. A significant decrease in annual ET0 is observed for less than 1% of the basin area, mainly in the Sahelian zone. On a seasonal scale, ET0 increases significantly for 32% of the basin area during the dry season and decreases significantly for 4% of the basin during the rainy season. Annual maximum, minimum temperatures and relative humidity increase significantly for 68%, 81% and 37% of the basin, respectively. However, a significant decrease in wind speed is noted in the Sahelian part of the basin. The wind speed decrease and relative humidity increase lead to the decrease in ET0 and highlight a “paradox of evaporation” in the Sahelian part of the Senegal River basin. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, in the Senegal River basin, ET0 is more sensitive to relative humidity, maximum temperature and solar radiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: reference evapotranspiration; Penman-Monteith; sensitivity coefficient; Mann-Kendall test; Senegal river basin reference evapotranspiration; Penman-Monteith; sensitivity coefficient; Mann-Kendall test; Senegal river basin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ndiaye, P.M.; Bodian, A.; Diop, L.; Deme, A.; Dezetter, A.; Djaman, K.; Ogilvie, A. Trend and Sensitivity Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration in the Senegal River Basin Using NASA Meteorological Data. Water 2020, 12, 1957. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071957

AMA Style

Ndiaye PM, Bodian A, Diop L, Deme A, Dezetter A, Djaman K, Ogilvie A. Trend and Sensitivity Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration in the Senegal River Basin Using NASA Meteorological Data. Water. 2020; 12(7):1957. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071957

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ndiaye, Papa M., Ansoumana Bodian, Lamine Diop, Abdoulaye Deme, Alain Dezetter, Koffi Djaman, and Andrew Ogilvie. 2020. "Trend and Sensitivity Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration in the Senegal River Basin Using NASA Meteorological Data" Water 12, no. 7: 1957. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071957

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