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Protection Motivation Theory: A Proposed Theoretical Extension and Moving beyond Rationality—The Case of Flooding

1
WPI_Economics, 11 Tufton Street, London SW1P 3QB, UK
2
Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, UK
3
School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, College Road, Cranfield MK430AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(7), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071848
Received: 7 May 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Risk Management)
Despite the significant financial and non-financial costs of household flooding, and the availability of products that can reduce the risk or impact of flooding, relatively few consumers choose to adopt these products. To help explain this, we combine the existing theoretical literature with evidence from 20 one-to-one discussions and three workshops with key stakeholders, as well as five round tables, to draw practical evidence of actual responses to flood risk. This analysis leads us to propose an extension to Protection Motivation Theory (PMT), which more accurately captures the decision-making process of consumers by highlighting the role of ‘ownership appraisal’. We then assess the extent to which behavioral biases impact on this revised framework. By highlighting the interaction with an augmented model of PMT and behavioral biases, the paper sheds light on potential reasons behind the fact that consumers are unlikely to adopt property-level flood resilience measures and identifies strategies to increase flood protection. The Augmented PMT suggests that policymakers might focus on increasing the Ownership Appraisal element, both directly and by targeting the creation of more supportive social norms. The work presented here opens up a wide range of areas for future research in the field. View Full-Text
Keywords: flooding; protection motivation theory; property flood resilience; communication; risk flooding; protection motivation theory; property flood resilience; communication; risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oakley, M.; Mohun Himmelweit, S.; Leinster, P.; Casado, M.R. Protection Motivation Theory: A Proposed Theoretical Extension and Moving beyond Rationality—The Case of Flooding. Water 2020, 12, 1848. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071848

AMA Style

Oakley M, Mohun Himmelweit S, Leinster P, Casado MR. Protection Motivation Theory: A Proposed Theoretical Extension and Moving beyond Rationality—The Case of Flooding. Water. 2020; 12(7):1848. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071848

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oakley, Matthew, Sam Mohun Himmelweit, Paul Leinster, and Mónica Rivas Casado. 2020. "Protection Motivation Theory: A Proposed Theoretical Extension and Moving beyond Rationality—The Case of Flooding" Water 12, no. 7: 1848. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071848

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