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Evolution of the Materials and Methods Used for Subsurface Drainage of Agricultural Lands from Antiquity to the Present

1
Faculty of Engineering, School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Departments of LAWR and Biological & Agricultural Engineering, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources—Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center, University of California, Parlier, CA 93648, USA
4
HAO-Demeter, Agricultural Research Institution of Crete, 71300 Iraklion, Greece
5
Union of Hellenic Water Supply and Sewerage Operators, 41222 Larissa, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(6), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061767
Received: 18 April 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 21 June 2020
Agricultural drainage plays an important role worldwide in food production and conservation of soil resources, while safeguarding investments in agricultural production and irrigation projects. It can improve crop yields and land productivity, especially on poorly drained soils and in cases of prolonged waterlogging. Both the subsurface drainage materials and the installation techniques used have a long history dating to prehistoric times. Over time, new subsurface drainage materials, installation techniques and modernized equipment were being developed continuously to take advantage of technological advances provided through research and development, while the planning and organization of the implementation process were improved. Today’s new materials and improved installation methods can offer solutions to problems still unsolved, while sometimes creating new ones. This paper considers the evolution of basic subsurface drainage materials and their installation techniques as they developed and adapted over time as well as possible future trends in drainage system design and application. View Full-Text
Keywords: subsurface drainage; drain envelope; drainage pipe; installation equipment; agricultural land; drainage machinery subsurface drainage; drain envelope; drainage pipe; installation equipment; agricultural land; drainage machinery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yannopoulos, S.I.; Grismer, M.E.; Bali, K.M.; Angelakis, A.N. Evolution of the Materials and Methods Used for Subsurface Drainage of Agricultural Lands from Antiquity to the Present. Water 2020, 12, 1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061767

AMA Style

Yannopoulos SI, Grismer ME, Bali KM, Angelakis AN. Evolution of the Materials and Methods Used for Subsurface Drainage of Agricultural Lands from Antiquity to the Present. Water. 2020; 12(6):1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061767

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yannopoulos, Stavros I., Mark E. Grismer, Khaled M. Bali, and Andreas N. Angelakis. 2020. "Evolution of the Materials and Methods Used for Subsurface Drainage of Agricultural Lands from Antiquity to the Present" Water 12, no. 6: 1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061767

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