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Open AccessArticle

Changes in Water Surface Area of the Lake in the Steppe Region of Mongolia: A Case Study of Ugii Nuur Lake, Central Mongolia

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Department of Geography, Division of Natural Sciences, School of Arts & Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
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Department of Environment and Forest Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
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State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, Water Resources Department, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR), Beijing 100038, China
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Surface Water Research Department, Information and Research Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology, and Environment, Ulaanbaatar 210646, Mongolia
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College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
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College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China
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Department of Natural Resource Management, University of Gondar, Gondar 196, Ethiopia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(5), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051470 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 11 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Space-Time Statistics in Water Resources)
The Ugii Nuur Lake is not only one of the small hydrologically closed lakes located in the Orkhon River Basin in Central Mongolia but also the most vulnerable area for global climate change. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the impacts of recent global climate change on the water surface area. The data we analyzed were various measured hydro-meteorological variables of the lake basin and the lake surface area, which was estimated from Landsat series satellite data from 1986 to 2018. The methods we used were Mann-Kendall (MK), Innovative trend analysis method (ITAM), Sen’s slope estimator test, correlation, and regression analysis. The variation of lake water surface area has a strong positive correlation with the change of the lake water level (r = 0.95). The Mann-Kendall trend analysis has indicated that under a significant decrease in total annual precipitation ( Z   = −0.902) and inflow river discharge ( Z   = −5.392) and a considerable increase in total annual evaporation ( Z = 4.385) and annual average air temperature ( Z   = 4.595), the surface area of the Ugii Nuur Lake has decreased sharply ( Z = −6.021). The total annual evaporation (r = −0.64) and inflow river discharge (r = 0.67) were the essential hydro-meteorological factors affecting the surface area of the Ugii Nuur Lake. The lake surface area decreased by 13.5% in 2018 compared with 1986. In the near future, it is vital to conduct scientific studies considering the volume of lake water, groundwater, and the anthropogenic impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: water surface area; air temperature; precipitation; river discharge; evaporation; Mongolia water surface area; air temperature; precipitation; river discharge; evaporation; Mongolia
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Sumiya, E.; Dorjsuren, B.; Yan, D.; Dorligjav, S.; Wang, H.; Enkhbold, A.; Weng, B.; Qin, T.; Wang, K.; Gerelmaa, T.; Dambaravjaa, O.; Bi, W.; Yang, Y.; Ganbold, B.; Gedefaw, M.; Abiyu, A.; Girma, A. Changes in Water Surface Area of the Lake in the Steppe Region of Mongolia: A Case Study of Ugii Nuur Lake, Central Mongolia. Water 2020, 12, 1470.

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