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Hydrogeochemical Characterization of a Warm Spring System in a Carbonate Mountain Range of the Eastern Julian Alps, Slovenia

1
Geological Survey of Slovenia, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(5), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051427
Received: 18 April 2020 / Revised: 11 May 2020 / Accepted: 11 May 2020 / Published: 17 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
The Alps represent an area where many deep groundwater circulations occur as thermal springs. In the Bled case study, the thermal water temperature, at it is discharged to the surface, is between 19–23 °C. In order to determine the extent (e.g., geometry) and the origin of the pronounced deep circulation system in the Bled area, chemical and isotopic measurements of waters from different hydrogeological systems were performed (e.g., surface water, thermal water, fresh groundwater). Hydrogeochemical methods were used to tie together the above-mentioned parameters. The results have shown that thermal outflow in Bled is determined by the presence of a deep-water circulation system, where the dissolution of carbonates minerals is the main hydrogeochemical process affecting chemical components of natural water flow. The correlation of the major ions suggests that the recharge area is represented by both limestone and dolomite rocks. Moreover, the results of δ18O and δ2H of all samples indicate that the recharge is mainly meteoric precipitation. The recharge altitude was estimated for two sampled fresh groundwater springs. The isotopic compositions of those two springs suggest the range from δ18O = −8.68‰, δ2H = −57.4‰ at an elevation of 629 m to δ18O = −9.30‰, δ2H = −60.1‰ at an elevation of 1216 m. The isotopic analysis has confirmed that the thermal water recharges from altitudes of 1282–1620 m a.s.l. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermal spring; groundwater; hydrogeochemical characteristics; stable isotopes; Julian Alps thermal spring; groundwater; hydrogeochemical characteristics; stable isotopes; Julian Alps
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Serianz, L.; Rman, N.; Brenčič, M. Hydrogeochemical Characterization of a Warm Spring System in a Carbonate Mountain Range of the Eastern Julian Alps, Slovenia. Water 2020, 12, 1427.

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