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Article

Electrodialytic Hydrogen Production and Critical Raw Materials Recovery from Secondary Resources

Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Department of Sciences and Environmental Engineering, School of Sciences and Technology, NOVA University Lisbon, Caparica Campus, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
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Water 2020, 12(5), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051262
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 22 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 29 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sewage Sludge Treatment and Reuse)
Electrodialytic technologies are defined as treatment processes that promote the removal/recovery of substances in a matrix, based on the application of low-level current intensities. Additionally, along these processes hydrogen is self-generated, allowing them to operationally produce clean energy. This energy carrier is produced due to electrolysis reactions occurring at the cathode end of the electrodialytic reactor, when using inert electrodes. Herein, hydrogen production during the electrodialytic treatment of sewage sludge and mining residues suspensions (coupled with effluent or sewage sludge), at 50 and 100 mA, was assessed. During the electrodialytic treatment of sewage sludge, hydrogen purity production achieved 33%. When effluent or sewage sludge were used as enhancements in mining residues suspensions, hydrogen purity reached 71% and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell was connected to the cathode compartment of the electrodialytic reactor. The electrical energy generated from self-hydrogen produced at 100 mA achieved ≈1 V in all performed experiments. Simultaneously, critical raw materials extraction, namely phosphorus and tungsten, was evaluated. When the process was applied to mining residue suspensions combined with sewage sludge, the highest extraction ratio of phosphorus (71%) and tungsten (62%) was observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrodialytic technology; hydrogen production; proton-exchange membrane fuel cell; energy; phosphorus; tungsten electrodialytic technology; hydrogen production; proton-exchange membrane fuel cell; energy; phosphorus; tungsten
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MDPI and ACS Style

Almeida, J.; Magro, C.; Mateus, E.P.; Ribeiro, A.B. Electrodialytic Hydrogen Production and Critical Raw Materials Recovery from Secondary Resources. Water 2020, 12, 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051262

AMA Style

Almeida J, Magro C, Mateus EP, Ribeiro AB. Electrodialytic Hydrogen Production and Critical Raw Materials Recovery from Secondary Resources. Water. 2020; 12(5):1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051262

Chicago/Turabian Style

Almeida, Joana, Cátia Magro, Eduardo P. Mateus, and Alexandra B. Ribeiro. 2020. "Electrodialytic Hydrogen Production and Critical Raw Materials Recovery from Secondary Resources" Water 12, no. 5: 1262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051262

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