The prediction and advanced warning of landslide hazards in large-scale areas must deal with a large amount of uncertainty, therefore a growing number of studies are using stochastic models to analyze the probability of landslide occurrences. In this study, we used a modified Thiessen's polygon method to divide the research area into several rain gauge control areas, and divided the control areas into slope units reflecting the topographic characteristics to enhance the spatial resolution of a landslide probability model. We used a 2000–2015 long-term landslide inventory, daily rainfall, and effective accumulated rainfall to estimate the rainfall threshold that can trigger landslides. We then employed a Poisson probability model and historical rainfall data from 1987 to 2016 to calculate the exceedance probability that rainfall events will exceed the threshold value. We calculated the number of landslides occurring from the events when rainfall exceeds the threshold value in the slope units to estimate the probability that a landslide will occur in this situation. Lastly, we employed the concept of conditional probability by multiplying this probability with the exceedance probability of rainfall events exceeding the threshold value, which yielded the probability that a landslide will occur in each slope unit for one year. The results indicated the slope units with high probability that at least one rainfall event will exceed the threshold value at the same time that one landslide will occur within any one year are largely located in the southwestern part of the Taipei Water Source Domain, and the highest probability is 0.26. These slope units are located in parts of the study area with relatively weak lithology, high elevations, and steep slopes. Compared with probability models based solely on landslide inventories, our proposed landslide probability model, combined with a long-term landslide inventory and rainfall factors, can avoid problems resulting from an incomplete landslide inventory, and can also be used to estimate landslide occurrence probability based on future potential changes in rainfall.
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