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Article

An Evaluation Study of the Fully Coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro Modeling System for Simulation of Storm Events with Different Rainfall Evenness in Space and Time

1
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
2
College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3
Nansen-Zhu International Research Centre, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041209
Received: 25 February 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 21 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Modeling in Water Cycle Processes)
With the aim of improving the understanding of water exchanges in medium-scale catchments of northern China, the spatiotemporal characteristics of rainfall and several key water cycle elements e.g., soil moisture, evapotranspiration and generated runoff, were investigated using a fully coupled atmospheric-hydrologic modeling system by integrating the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and its terrestrial hydrologic component WRF-Hydro (referred to as the fully coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro). The stand-alone WRF model (referred to as WRF-only) is also used as a comparison with the fully coupled system, which was expected to produce more realistic simulations, especially rainfall, by allowing the redistribution of surface and subsurface water across the land surface. Six storm events were sorted by different spatial and temporal distribution types, and categorical and continuous indices were used to distinguish the applicability in space and time between WRF-only and the fully coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro. The temporal indices showed that the coupled WRF-Hydro could improve the time homogeneous precipitation, but for the time inhomogeneous precipitation, it might produce a larger false alarm than WRF-only, especially for the flash storm that occurred in July, 2012. The spatial indices showed a lower mean bias error in the coupled system, and presented an enhanced simulation of both space homogeneous and inhomogeneous storm events than WRF-only. In comparison with WRF-only, the fully coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro had a closer to the observations particularly in and around the storm centers. The redistributions fluctuation of spatial precipitation in the fully coupled system was highly correlated with soil moisture, and a low initial soil moisture could lead to a large spatial fluctuated range. Generally, the fully coupled system produced slightly less runoff than WRF-only, but more frequent infiltration and larger soil moisture. While terrestrial hydrologic elements differed with relatively small amounts in the average of the two catchments between WRF-only and the fully coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro, the spatial distribution of elements in the water cycle before and after coupling with WRF-Hydro was not consistent. The soil moisture, runoff and precipitation in the fully coupled system had a similar spatial trend, but evapotranspiration did not always display the same. View Full-Text
Keywords: fully coupled atmospheric-hydrologic modeling system; spatiotemporal homogeneousness; rainfall events; Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model; WRF-Hydro fully coupled atmospheric-hydrologic modeling system; spatiotemporal homogeneousness; rainfall events; Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model; WRF-Hydro
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, W.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Liu, Y.; Yu, F.; Yu, E. An Evaluation Study of the Fully Coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro Modeling System for Simulation of Storm Events with Different Rainfall Evenness in Space and Time. Water 2020, 12, 1209. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041209

AMA Style

Wang W, Liu J, Li C, Liu Y, Yu F, Yu E. An Evaluation Study of the Fully Coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro Modeling System for Simulation of Storm Events with Different Rainfall Evenness in Space and Time. Water. 2020; 12(4):1209. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041209

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Wei, Jia Liu, Chuanzhe Li, Yuchen Liu, Fuliang Yu, and Entao Yu. 2020. "An Evaluation Study of the Fully Coupled WRF/WRF-Hydro Modeling System for Simulation of Storm Events with Different Rainfall Evenness in Space and Time" Water 12, no. 4: 1209. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041209

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