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Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Dam-Break Flow through Different Contraction Geometries of the Channel

Department of Civil Engineering, Iskenderun Technical University, Iskenderun 31200, Turkey
Civil and Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, 03043 Cassino (FR), Italy
Department of Civil Engineering, Cukurova University, Adana 01330, Turkey
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1124;
Received: 1 March 2020 / Revised: 12 April 2020 / Accepted: 12 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
Dam-break wave propagation usually occurs over irregular topography, due for example to natural contraction-expansion of the river bed and to the presence of natural or artificial obstacles. Due to limited available dam-break real-case data, laboratory and numerical modeling studies are significant for understanding this type of complex flow problems. To contribute to the related field, a dam-break flow over a channel with a contracting reach was investigated experimentally and numerically. Laboratory tests were carried out in a smooth rectangular channel with a horizontal dry bed for three different lateral contraction geometries. A non-intrusive digital imaging technique was utilized to analyze the dam-break wave propagation. Free surface profiles and time variation of water levels in selected sections were obtained directly from three synchronized CCD video camera records through a virtual wave probe. The experimental results were compared against the numerical solution of VOF (Volume of Fluid)-based Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the k-ε turbulence model. Good agreements were obtained between computed and measured results. However, the RANS solution shows a better correspondence with the experimental results compared with the SWEs one. The presented new experimental data can be used to validate numerical models for the simulation of dam-break flows over irregular topography. View Full-Text
Keywords: contraction; dam-break; unsteady flow; RANS; SWEs; CFD contraction; dam-break; unsteady flow; RANS; SWEs; CFD
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Kocaman, S.; Güzel, H.; Evangelista, S.; Ozmen-Cagatay, H.; Viccione, G. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Dam-Break Flow through Different Contraction Geometries of the Channel. Water 2020, 12, 1124.

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