Next Article in Journal
Analysis of Climate Change’s Effect on Flood Risk. Case Study of Reinosa in the Ebro River Basin
Next Article in Special Issue
Sewage Sludge Thermal Treatment Technology Selection by Utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process
Previous Article in Journal
Removal of Aquatic Cadmium Ions Using Thiourea Modified Poplar Biochar
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparative Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Community Structure in Microwave Pretreated Thermophilic and Mesophilic Anaerobic Digesters Utilizing Mixed Sludge under Organic Overloading
Article

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) Production: A Feasible Economic Option for the Treatment of Sewage Sludge in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants?

1
Faculty of Engineering and Sciences, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, 2520000 Viña del Mar, Chile
2
Escuela de Ingeniería Bioquímica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2085, 2362803 Valparaíso, Chile
3
Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Medio Ambiente e Ingeniería (LABMAI), Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Avda. Leopoldo Carvallo 270, 2340000 Valparaíso, Chile
4
CRETUS Intitute, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041118
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 11 April 2020 / Accepted: 12 April 2020 / Published: 14 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sewage Sludge Treatment and Reuse)
Sludge is a by-product of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and its management contributes significantly to the operating costs. Large WWTPs usually have anaerobic sludge digesters to valorize sludge as methane and to reduce its mass. However, the low methane market price opens the possibility for generating other high value-added products from the organic matter in sludge, such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). In this work, the economic feasibility of retrofitting two types of WWTPs to convert them into biofactories of crude PHAs was studied. Two cases were analyzed: (a) a large WWTP with anaerobic sludge digestion; and (b) a small WWTP where sludge is only dewatered. In a two-stage PHA-production system (biomass enrichment plus PHAs accumulation), the minimum PHAs cost would be 1.26 and 2.26 US$/kg PHA-crude for the large and small WWTPs, respectively. In a single-stage process, where a fraction of the secondary sludge (25%) is directly used to accumulate PHAs, the production costs would decrease by around 15.9% (small WWTPs) and 19.0% (large WWTPs), since capital costs associated with bioreactors decrease. Sensitivity analysis showed that the PHA/COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) yield is the most crucial parameter affecting the production costs. The energy, methane, and sludge management prices also have an essential effect on the production costs, and their effect depends on the WWTP’s size. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaerobic digestion; bioplastics; economic analysis; methane; resource recovery; sewage sludge; WWTP size anaerobic digestion; bioplastics; economic analysis; methane; resource recovery; sewage sludge; WWTP size
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Crutchik, D.; Franchi, O.; Caminos, L.; Jeison, D.; Belmonte, M.; Pedrouso, A.; Val del Rio, A.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J.L. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) Production: A Feasible Economic Option for the Treatment of Sewage Sludge in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants? Water 2020, 12, 1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041118

AMA Style

Crutchik D, Franchi O, Caminos L, Jeison D, Belmonte M, Pedrouso A, Val del Rio A, Mosquera-Corral A, Campos JL. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) Production: A Feasible Economic Option for the Treatment of Sewage Sludge in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants? Water. 2020; 12(4):1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041118

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crutchik, Dafne; Franchi, Oscar; Caminos, Luis; Jeison, David; Belmonte, Marisol; Pedrouso, Alba; Val del Rio, Angeles; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José L. 2020. "Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) Production: A Feasible Economic Option for the Treatment of Sewage Sludge in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants?" Water 12, no. 4: 1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041118

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop