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Case Report

Innovative Feasibility Study for the Reclamation of the Cascajo Wetlands in Peru Utilizing Sustainable Technologies

1
Agrosystems Research Group, Wageningen University and Research, 6708PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
TTT Grupo Morikawa, Pueblo Libre, Lima 15084, Peru
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041097
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 7 April 2020 / Accepted: 9 April 2020 / Published: 12 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
Wetlands are an important feature for our society that provides versatile benefits, such as habitat for diverse wildlife, shoreline erosion protection, flood control, and mitigation of climate change through capture and storage of carbon. The aim of this work was to assess the application of nanotechnologies for the restoration of the water quality in the Cascajo Wetlands, Peru, where the water quality was deteriorated. Ceramic-based bio-filters (CBBFs) were used to reduce and buffer the contamination rates of pollutants, whereas micro-nano bubbles (MNBs) were applied to increase the dissolved oxygen and release free radicals in water. Additionally, bio-fence was implemented to prevent water intrusion from the ocean. Remote sensing data through the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was used to monitor the water surface condition. With treatment of CBBFs and MNBs for 13 months, we observed reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphate (TP) in the water body, showing removal percentages of 98.5%, 97.5%, 98.1%, 98.5%, and 94.6%, respectively, in comparison with values before starting the implementation. The trends of NDVI and EVI over seasons are not completely aligned with the results taken from the wetlands treated with MNBs, CBBFs and bio-fence. While TN was highly correlated with the empirical value of TN based on remote sensing, no correlation was observed between COD and empirical COD. The use of eco-friendly techniques has performed efficiently to remove the pollutant. View Full-Text
Keywords: pollutant; nano-bubble; bio-filter; chemical oxygen demand; biological oxygen demand pollutant; nano-bubble; bio-filter; chemical oxygen demand; biological oxygen demand
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jindo, K.; Morikawa Sakura, M.S. Innovative Feasibility Study for the Reclamation of the Cascajo Wetlands in Peru Utilizing Sustainable Technologies. Water 2020, 12, 1097. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041097

AMA Style

Jindo K, Morikawa Sakura MS. Innovative Feasibility Study for the Reclamation of the Cascajo Wetlands in Peru Utilizing Sustainable Technologies. Water. 2020; 12(4):1097. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jindo, Keiji, and Marino S. Morikawa Sakura 2020. "Innovative Feasibility Study for the Reclamation of the Cascajo Wetlands in Peru Utilizing Sustainable Technologies" Water 12, no. 4: 1097. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041097

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