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Open AccessArticle

Limnological Quality: Seasonality Assessment and Potential for Contamination of the Pindaré River Watershed, Pre-Amazon Region, Brazil

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CEUMA University, Rua Josué Montello 01, Jardim Renascença II, São Luís - Maranhão 65075-120, Brazil
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Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Master Science in Environmental, CEUMA University, Rua Josué Montello 01, Jardim Renascença II, São Luís, Maranhão 65075-120, Brazil
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Teacher of Biomedicine Course, CEUMA University, Rua Josué Montello 01, Jardim Renascença II, São Luís, Maranhão 65075-120, Brazil
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Postgraduate Program in Management of Health Programs and Services CEUMA University, Rua Josué Montello 01, Jardim Renascença II, São Luís, Maranhão 65075-120, Brazil
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030851
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 27 February 2020 / Accepted: 28 February 2020 / Published: 18 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Watersheds are defined as a set of lands where water drainage occurs through rivers and their tributaries. A large quantity of water resources exist in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, where rivers and their basins must meet environmental quality standards defined by the limits set out in national environmental council (CONAMA) legislation 357/05 for physicochemical and microbiological parameters, including parasites. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied to study the temporal and spatial variations in water quality of a segment of the Pindaré River. The data set included nine parameters for three sampling points over eleven months. Principal component analysis grouped the monitored sampling points into four clusters and identified electrical conductivity, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, salinity, and Escherichia coli as being associated with the dry season and nitrite, nitrate, and turbidity as being associated with the rainy season. Three principal components explained 83.80% of the data variance during the rainy and dry seasons. The evaluated correlations indicated that during the rainy season, nitrite (~0.18 mg L−1) and turbidity (~46.00 NTU) levels were the highest, but pH was at its lowest (~6.61). During the dry season, TDS (~155.00 mg L−1) and pH (~8.10) were highest, and E. coli bacteria was more abundant. View Full-Text
Keywords: fecal coliforms; parasites; principal component analysis; river; water quality fecal coliforms; parasites; principal component analysis; river; water quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Muniz, J.N.; Duarte, K.G.; Braga, F.H.R.; Lima, N.S.; Silva, D.F.; Firmo, W.C.A.; Batista, M.R.V.; Silva, F.M.A.M.; Miranda, R.C.M.; Silva, M.R.C. Limnological Quality: Seasonality Assessment and Potential for Contamination of the Pindaré River Watershed, Pre-Amazon Region, Brazil. Water 2020, 12, 851.

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