# Comparison Between Two Hydrodynamic Models in Simulating Physical Processes of a Reservoir with Complex Morphology: Maroon Reservoir

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Study Site, Data and Methods

#### 2.1. Study Site

^{2}located in the Zagros Mountains. The main stream of the watershed, the Maroon River, is a perennial river, with a flow regime originating from rainfall and snowmelt. The long-term annual mean flow of the river, upstream of the Maroon Reservoir, is 47 m

^{3}s

^{−1}, which is seasonally highly variable. The maximum and minimum monthly flows are typically in April and October, respectively, although the flooding season starts in December.

^{2}and a thalweg length of 30 km (at normal pool level (NPL)), combines two basins which are connected through a deep and narrow canyon in which the flow moves downstream gravitationally. The mean depth of the reservoir, defined as the ratio of volume (1.2 × 10

^{9}m

^{3}) to its surface area, is 49 m, which classifies it as a deep reservoir [5]. The mean water residence time in the reservoir is 1.27 years.

#### 2.2. Data

^{−1}suggested in [32] for the study region. As the solar (shortwave) radiation is not measured directly at the Behbahan station, it was estimated there from the measured bright sunshine data, using the FAO procedure [33], as the recommended approach for calculating solar radiation in Iran (e.g., [34,35]). Some studies (e.g., [36]) have found errors of up to 10% in the calculated peaks of hourly solar radiation using the named method in mountainous areas (in Japan). However, [35] and [37] found no significant difference between the calculated and observed solar radiation values in Iran, including the present study area (Khuzestan province).

#### 2.3. Computational Resources

#### 2.4. AEM3D Model

#### 2.4.1. Model Description

#### 2.4.2. AEM3D Model Preparation

#### 2.5. MIKE3 Model

#### 2.5.1. Model Description

#### 2.5.2. MIKE3 Model Preparation

#### 2.6. Models’ Parameters

#### 2.7. Methodology and Models’ Evaluation

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. General Results of Hydrodynamics

#### 3.2. Water Column Profiles

#### 3.3. General Error Discussion

#### 3.3.1. Effect of Poor Grid-Size Resolution

#### 3.3.2. Effect of Hydrostatic Model Assumption

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**(

**a**) Orientation map of the Maroon Reservoir; (

**b**) Maroon Reservoir catchment and location of the Behbahan synoptic and Eydanak rain gauge stations; (

**c**) Maroon Reservoir bathymetry and sensor locations.

**Figure 3.**(

**a**) Inflow boundary of MIKE3. The gray line in the background outlines the boundary of the AEM3D grid for comparison. (

**b**) Inflow boundary of AEM3D with meandering inflow boundary. The black arrows show the direction of the inflow at each cell of the inflow boundary (under the “flow_multi_sides” feature).

**Figure 5.**Observed and AEM3D- and MIKE3-simulated Maroon Reservoir water levels over the five-month simulation period. The color band illustrates the range of ±standard deviation of the observed water levels.

**Figure 6.**Observed (red dashed) and simulated water temperature using AEM3D (black) and MIKE3 with k-ε vertical discretization (blue dashed) versus measured values for the five gauging stations. All water temperatures are taken at sensor depths (2 m above bottom). Light red bands indicate the range of the ±standard deviation of the measured data. The red band at St5 is intentionally not indicated, as the observed data of St5 represent a shorter period (from February) than other stations.

**Figure 7.**MIKE3-simulated water temperature using different discretizations and vertical mixing models: z-sigma with k-ε turbulence model (blue), z-sigma with constant eddy viscosity (green) and sigma k-ε turbulence model (red) versus measured values (dashed) at measurement depths of each station. Light red bands delineate the range of the ±standard deviation of the measured data. The red band at St5 is intentionally not indicated as the observed data of St5 represent a shorter period (from February) than other stations.

**Figure 8.**Comparison between MIKE3 (continuous lines) and AEM3D (dashed lines) water temperature profiles simulated at different times and different locations of the Maroon Reservoir.

**Figure 9.**Comparison between MIKE3 (continuous lines) and AEM3D (dashed lines) simulated current speed profiles at different times and locations of the Maroon Reservoir.

**Figure 10.**(

**a**) River flow rate (continuous line) and temperature (dashed line) in the Maroon Reservoir; (

**b–f**) temporal variation of AEM3D-simulated water column temperatures at the various measurement stations.

**Figure 11.**Similar to Figure 10, but with water column temperatures simulated by MIKE3 (k-ε) using z/sigma discretization.

**Figure 12.**Temporal variations of the simulated water temperature by MIKE3 with different model discretizations and turbulence models as profiles of water column temperature at measurement locations in the Maroon Reservoir.

Parameter | Description | Unit | Value |
---|---|---|---|

C_{D} | Bottom drag coefficient | - | 0.05 |

λ_{PAR} | Light extinction coefficient | m^{−1} | 0.25 |

α_{sw} | Mean albedo for short-wave radiation | - | 0.08 |

α_{lw} | Mean albedo for long-wave radiation | - | 0.03 |

C_{d} | Wind stress coefficient | - | 0.0013 |

C_{H/S} | Bulk-transfer constant for surface scalar fluxes | - | 0.013 |

Parameter | Description | Unit | Value |
---|---|---|---|

${\nu}_{v}$ | Vertical eddy viscosity of k-ε model | m^{2} s^{−1} | 1 × 10^{−6} to 1 × 10^{−5} |

${\nu}_{h}$ | Horizontal eddy viscosity | m^{2} s^{−1} | 0.002 |

${C}_{d}$ | Wind stress coefficient | - | 0.0013 |

${C}_{D}$ | Bottom drag coefficient (bed resistance) | - | 0.055 |

${D}_{h}$ | Horizontal diffusion coefficients | - | 0.002, 0.0015 |

${D}_{v}$ | Vertical diffusion coefficient | - | 1.1 × 10^{−6} |

Model | Station | Mean (obs) (°C) | Mean (sim) (°C) | AME (°C) | RMSE (°C) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

AEM3D | St1 | 14.27 | 14.96 | 0.82 | 0.97 |

St2 | 14.57 | 14.48 | 0.41 | 0.71 | |

St3 | 14.59 | 14.97 | 0.65 | 0.81 | |

St4 | 14.19 | 13.98 | 0.88 | 1.07 | |

St5 | 13.05 | 13.08 | 0.71 | 0.91 | |

Mean | 0.70 | 0.89 | |||

MIKE3 z-sigma k-ε | St1 | 14.27 | 14.20 | 0.71 | 0.90 |

St2 | 14.57 | 14.60 | 0.96 | 1.16 | |

St3 | 14.59 | 14.85 | 0.90 | 1.04 | |

St4 | 14.19 | 13.87 | 0.79 | 1.02 | |

St5 | 13.05 | 15.20 | 2.65 | 2.83 | |

Mean | 1.20 | 1.39 | |||

MIKE3 z-sigma eddy viscosity | St1 | 14.27 | 14.43 | 0.80 | 0.99 |

St2 | 14.57 | 15.09 | 1.05 | 1.25 | |

St3 | 14.59 | 15.22 | 1.13 | 1.27 | |

St4 | 14.19 | 14.10 | 0.97 | 1.10 | |

St5 | 13.05 | 15.32 | 2.82 | 3.01 | |

Mean | 1.35 | 1.52 | |||

MIKE3 sigma k-ε | St1 | 14.27 | 15.29 | 1.02 | 1.32 |

St2 | 14.57 | 15.59 | 1.38 | 1.66 | |

St3 | 14.59 | 15.21 | 1.28 | 1.48 | |

St4 | 14.19 | 15.74 | 2.31 | 2.54 | |

St5 | 13.05 | 15.79 | 3.13 | 3.23 | |

Mean | 1.83 | 2.05 |

Station | AEM3D | MIKE3 z-sigma k-ε | MIKE3 z-sigma eddy viscosity | MIKE3 sigma k-ε |
---|---|---|---|---|

St1 | 0.90 | 0.88 | 0.88 | 0.86 |

St2 | 0.79 | 0.72 | 0.76 | 0.84 |

St3 | 0.79 | 0.80 | 0.81 | 0.77 |

St4 | 0.72 | 0.68 | 0.70 | 0.64 |

St5 | 0.62 | 0.59 | 0.57 | 0.29 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zamani, B.; Koch, M. Comparison Between Two Hydrodynamic Models in Simulating Physical Processes of a Reservoir with Complex Morphology: Maroon Reservoir. *Water* **2020**, *12*, 814.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030814

**AMA Style**

Zamani B, Koch M. Comparison Between Two Hydrodynamic Models in Simulating Physical Processes of a Reservoir with Complex Morphology: Maroon Reservoir. *Water*. 2020; 12(3):814.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030814

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zamani, Behnam, and Manfred Koch. 2020. "Comparison Between Two Hydrodynamic Models in Simulating Physical Processes of a Reservoir with Complex Morphology: Maroon Reservoir" *Water* 12, no. 3: 814.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030814