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Open AccessArticle

Streamflow Variability in Colombian Pacific Basins and Their Teleconnections with Climate Indices

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Research Group in Water Resources Engineering and Soil (IREHISA), School of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 #100-00, Cali 25360, Colombia
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Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanities, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 #100-00, Cali 25360, Colombia
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Postgraduation Program CLIAMB, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA)—Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Ave. André Araújo, 2936, Manaus 69060-001, Brazil
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Research Group of Hydrological and Environmental Modelling (GIMHA), Research Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering (IIAMA), Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
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Engineering School, Natural and Environmental Resources Engineering School (EIDENAR), Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 #100-00, Cali 25360, Colombia
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Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Escola Superior de TecnologiaAv. Darcy Vargas, 1200, Parque 10 de Novembro, Manaus 69050-020, Brazil
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Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos, Divisão de Modelagem e Desenvolvimento, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, São José dos Campos 12227-010, SP, Brazil
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Research Group of Perception and Intelligent Systems (PSI), School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 #100-00, Cali 25360, Colombia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020526
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 17 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Resources)
Oceanic-atmospheric phenomena of different time scales concurrently might affect the streamflow in several basins around the world. The Atrato River Basin (ARB) and Patía River Basin (PRB) of the Colombian Pacific region are examples of such basins. Nevertheless, the relations between the streamflows in the ARB and PRB and the oceanic-atmospheric factors have not been examined considering different temporal scales. Hence, this article studies the relations of the climate indices and the variability of the streamflows in the ARB and PRB at interannual and decadal timescales. To this, the streamflow variability modes were obtained from the principal component analysis (PCA); furthermore, their linear dependence with indices of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), precipitation (PRP), the Choco low-level jet (CJ), and other indices were quantified through (a) Pearson and Kendall’s tau correlations, and (b) wavelet transform. The PCA presented a single significant mode for each basin, with an explained variance of around 80%. The correlation analyses between the PC1s of the ARB and PRB, and the climate indices showed significant positive (negative) high correlations with PRP, CJ, and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (ENSO indices). The wavelet coherence analysis showed significant coherencies between ENSO and ARB: at interannual (2–7 years) and decadal scale (8–14), preferably with the sea surface temperature (SST) in the east and west Tropical Pacific Ocean (TPO). For PRB with the SST in the central and western regions of the TPO in the interannual (4–8 years) and decadal (8–14 years) scales, the decreases (increases) in streamflow precede the El Niño (La Niña) events. These results indicate multiscale relations between the basins’ streamflow and climate phenomena not documented in previous works, relevant to forecast the extreme flow events in the Colombian Pacific rivers and for planning and implementing strategies for the sustainable use of water resources in the basins studied. View Full-Text
Keywords: Colombian Pacific; principal component analysis; streamflow variability; climate indices; wavelet analysis Colombian Pacific; principal component analysis; streamflow variability; climate indices; wavelet analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Canchala, T.; Loaiza Cerón, W.; Francés, F.; Carvajal-Escobar, Y.; Andreoli, R.V.; Kayano, M.T.; Alfonso-Morales, W.; Caicedo-Bravo, E.; Ferreira de Souza, R.A. Streamflow Variability in Colombian Pacific Basins and Their Teleconnections with Climate Indices. Water 2020, 12, 526.

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