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The Occurrence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in an Urban River in Nepal

1
Environment and Social System Science Course, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
2
Interdisciplinary Center for River Basin Environment, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
3
Genetics and Sustainable Agricultural Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 810 Highway 12 East, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
4
Department of Global Environmental Health Sciences, Tulane University, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2100, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
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Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu 1524, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020450
Received: 28 December 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2020 / Accepted: 4 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
Urban rivers affected by anthropogenic activities can act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study aimed to describe the occurrence of selected ARGs (blaTEM, ermF, mecA, and tetA) and a class 1 integron (intI1) in an urban river in Nepal. A total of 18 water samples were collected periodically from upstream, midstream, and downstream sites along the Bagmati River over a 1-year period. All ARGs except mecA and intI1 were consistently detected by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the midstream and downstream sites, with concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 7.8 log copies/mL. ARG abundance was significantly lower at the upstream site (p < 0.05), reflecting the impact of anthropogenic activities on increasing concentrations of ARGs at midstream and downstream sites. Our findings demonstrate the presence of clinically relevant ARGs in the urban river water of Nepal, suggesting a need for mitigating strategies to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance gene; integron; quantitative PCR; river water antibiotic resistance gene; integron; quantitative PCR; river water
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thakali, O.; Tandukar, S.; Brooks, J.P.; Sherchan, S.P.; Sherchand, J.B.; Haramoto, E. The Occurrence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in an Urban River in Nepal. Water 2020, 12, 450.

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