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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Rethinking the Framework of Smart Water System: A Review

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Utah, 201 Presidents’ Cir, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
2
Department of Engineering Systems and Environment, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
3
Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020412
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2020 / Accepted: 1 February 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Urban Water Networks)
Throughout the past years, governments, industries, and researchers have shown increasing interest in incorporating smart techniques, including sensor monitoring, real-time data transmitting, and real-time controlling into water systems. However, the design and construction of such a smart water system are still not quite standardized for massive applications due to the lack of consensus on the framework. The major challenge impeding wide application of the smart water network is the unavailability of a systematic framework to guide real-world design and deployment. To address this challenge, this review study aims to facilitate more extensive adoption of the smart water system, to increase effectiveness and efficiency in real-world water system contexts. A total of 32 literature pieces including 1 international forum, 17 peer-reviewed papers, 10 reports, and 4 presentations that are directly related to frameworks of smart water system have been reviewed. A new and comprehensive smart water framework, including definition and architecture, was proposed in this review paper. Two conceptual metrics (smartness and cyber wellness) were defined to evaluate the performance of smart water systems. Additionally, three pieces of future research suggestions were discussed, calling for broader collaboration in the community of researchers, engineers, and industrial and governmental sectors to promote smart water system applications.
Keywords: smart water system; framework; smartness; cyber wellness smart water system; framework; smartness; cyber wellness
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Yang, X.; Sitzenfrei, R. Rethinking the Framework of Smart Water System: A Review. Water 2020, 12, 412.

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