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Open AccessArticle

Numerical Simulation of Wave Overtopping on Breakwater with an Armor Layer of Accropode Using SWASH Model

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Tianjin Key Laboratory of Soft Soil Characteristics & Engineering Environment, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4003, USA
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Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210024, China
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College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020386
Received: 1 January 2020 / Revised: 29 January 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2020 / Published: 1 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
In this paper, a new method for predicting wave overtopping discharges of Accropode armored breakwaters using the non-hydrostatic wave model Simulating WAves till SHore (SWASH) is presented. The apparent friction coefficient concept is proposed to allow the bottom shear stress term calculated in the momentum equation to reasonably represent the effect of comprehensive energy dissipation caused by the roughness and seepage during the wave overtopping process. A large number of wave overtopping cases are simulated with a calibrated SWASH model to determine the values of equivalent roughness coefficients so that the apparent friction coefficients can be estimated to achieve the conditions with good agreement between numerical overtopping discharges and those from the EurOtop neural network model. The relative crest freeboard and the wave steepness are found to be the two main factors affecting the equivalent roughness coefficient. A derived empirical formula for the estimation of an equivalent roughness coefficient is presented. The simulated overtopping discharges by the SWASH model using the values of the equivalent roughness coefficient estimated from the empirical formula are compared with the physical model test results. It is found that the mean error rate from the present model predictions is 0.24, which is slightly better than the mean error rate of 0.26 from the EurOtop neural network model. View Full-Text
Keywords: Accropode armored breakwater; non-hydrostatic wave model; mean overtopping discharge; equivalent roughness coefficient Accropode armored breakwater; non-hydrostatic wave model; mean overtopping discharge; equivalent roughness coefficient
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Zhang, N.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, K.-H.; Zou, G.; Jiang, X.; Yang, A.; Li, Y. Numerical Simulation of Wave Overtopping on Breakwater with an Armor Layer of Accropode Using SWASH Model. Water 2020, 12, 386.

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