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Open AccessArticle

A Study of Precipitation Patterns through Stochastic Ordering

by Nan Ni 1 and Hao Zhang 2,*
1
School of Statistics, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China
2
Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47807, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020351
Received: 21 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 22 January 2020 / Published: 27 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
The study of spatial and temporal changes in precipitation patterns is important to agriculture and natural ecosystems. These changes can be described by some climate change indices. Because these indices often have skewed probability distributions, some common statistical procedures become either inappropriate or less powerful when they are applied to the indices. A nonparametric approach based on stochastic ordering is proposed, which does not make any assumption on the shape of the distribution. This approach is applied to the average length of the period between two adjacent precipitation days, which is called the average number of consecutive dry days (ACDD). This approach is shown to be able to reveal some patterns in precipitation that other approaches do not. Using daily precipitations at 756 stations in China from 1960 to 2015, this work compares the ACDDs in three periods, 1960–1965, 1985–1990, and 2010–2015 for each province in China. The results show that ACDD increases stochastically from the period 1960–1965 to either the period 1985–1990 or the period 2010–2015, or from the period 1985–1990 to the period 2010–2015 in all but three provinces in China. View Full-Text
Keywords: consecutive day days; nonparametric tests; precipitation days; stochastic ordering consecutive day days; nonparametric tests; precipitation days; stochastic ordering
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Ni, N.; Zhang, H. A Study of Precipitation Patterns through Stochastic Ordering. Water 2020, 12, 351.

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