Next Article in Journal
Biological Reduction of Organic Matter in Buji River Sediment (Shenzhen, China) with Artificial Oxygenation
Next Article in Special Issue
Cometabolism of the Superphylum Patescibacteria with Anammox Bacteria in a Long-Term Freshwater Anammox Column Reactor
Previous Article in Journal
Urban Water Management: A Pragmatic Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Produced Water by Ferrate (VI) Oxidation
Review

An Overview of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in the Environment: Source, Fate, Risk and Regulations

1
School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Coastal Marine Ecosystems Research Centre (CMERC), 120 Spencer St., Melbourne, QLD 3000, Australia
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, A’Sharqiyah University (ASU), Ibra 400, Oman
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology (FEGT), Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar 31900, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3590; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123590
Received: 3 November 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment: Current and Future Techniques)
The current article reviews the state of art of the perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) compounds and provides an overview of PFASs occurrence in the environment, wildlife, and humans. This study reviews the issues concerning PFASs exposure and potential risks generated with a focus on PFAS occurrence and transformation in various media, discusses their physicochemical characterization and treatment technologies, before discussing the potential human exposure routes. The various toxicological impacts to human health are also discussed. The article pays particular attention to the complexity and challenging issue of regulating PFAS compounds due to the arising uncertainty and lack of epidemiological evidence encountered. The variation in PFAS regulatory values across the globe can be easily addressed due to the influence of multiple scientific, technical, and social factors. The varied toxicology and the insufficient definition of PFAS exposure rate are among the main factors contributing to this discrepancy. The lack of proven standard approaches for examining PFAS in surface water, groundwater, wastewater, or solids adds more technical complexity. Although it is agreed that PFASs pose potential health risks in various media, the link between the extent of PFAS exposure and the significance of PFAS risk remain among the evolving research areas. There is a growing need to address the correlation between the frequency and the likelihood of human exposure to PFAS and the possible health risks encountered. Although USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) recommends the 70 ng/L lifetime health advisory in drinking water for both perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFO) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which is similar to the Australian regulations, the German Ministry of Health proposed a health-based guidance of maximum of 300 ng/L for the combination of PFOA and PFOS. Moreover, there are significant discrepancies among the US states where the water guideline levels for the different states ranged from 13 to 1000 ng L−1 for PFOA and/or PFOS. The current review highlighted the significance of the future research required to fill in the knowledge gap in PFAS toxicology and to better understand this through real field data and long-term monitoring programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs); toxicology; PFAS health risk; regulatory values poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs); toxicology; PFAS health risk; regulatory values
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Abunada, Z.; Alazaiza, M.Y.D.; Bashir, M.J.K. An Overview of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in the Environment: Source, Fate, Risk and Regulations. Water 2020, 12, 3590. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123590

AMA Style

Abunada Z, Alazaiza MYD, Bashir MJK. An Overview of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in the Environment: Source, Fate, Risk and Regulations. Water. 2020; 12(12):3590. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123590

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abunada, Ziyad; Alazaiza, Motasem Y.D.; Bashir, Mohammed J.K. 2020. "An Overview of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in the Environment: Source, Fate, Risk and Regulations" Water 12, no. 12: 3590. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123590

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop