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Article

Spatiotemporal Distribution Characteristics of Reference Evapotranspiration in Shandong Province from 1980 to 2019

by 1, 1,2, 2,3,*, 2,3, 2,3 and 2,3
1
Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China
2
National Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Equipment in Agriculture, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China
3
Key Laboratory for Quality Testing of Hardware and Software Products on Agricultural Information, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100125, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3495; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123495
Received: 16 November 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 December 2020 / Published: 12 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Resources)
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is an important part of the water cycle and energy cycle during crop growth. Understanding the influencing factors and spatiotemporal variations of ET0 can guide regional water-saving irrigation and regulate agricultural production. Data for daily meteorological observations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine hours from 38 surface meteorological stations were used to analyze the spatiotemporal variations and trends in Shandong Province from 1980 to 2019. (1) The ET0 from 1980 to 2019 was 1070.5 mm, and there was a significant downward trend in the climate tendency rate of −7.92/10 a. The climate of Shandong Province became warmer and drier. The average annual temperature showed a significant upward trend, while the average annual relative humidity and average annual sunshine hours showed significant downward trends. (2) The annual ET0 ratio in spring, summer, autumn, and winter was 29%, 40%, 21%, and 10%, respectively. (3) A change in Shandong Province’s interannual ET0 occurred in 2002, with a decrease of 130.74 mm since then. (4) The ET0 was positively correlated with temperature, wind speed, and sunshine hours and negatively correlated with relative humidity. This study provides a scientific basis for the regulation and control of agricultural production in Shandong Province. View Full-Text
Keywords: reference crop evapotranspiration; temporal and spatial distribution; meteorological factors; Shandong Province; Pearson correlation reference crop evapotranspiration; temporal and spatial distribution; meteorological factors; Shandong Province; Pearson correlation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, F.; Liu, Z.; Zhangzhong, L.; Yu, J.; Shi, K.; Yao, L. Spatiotemporal Distribution Characteristics of Reference Evapotranspiration in Shandong Province from 1980 to 2019. Water 2020, 12, 3495. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123495

AMA Style

Zhang F, Liu Z, Zhangzhong L, Yu J, Shi K, Yao L. Spatiotemporal Distribution Characteristics of Reference Evapotranspiration in Shandong Province from 1980 to 2019. Water. 2020; 12(12):3495. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123495

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Fujie; Liu, Zihan; Zhangzhong, Lili; Yu, Jingxin; Shi, Kaili; Yao, Li. 2020. "Spatiotemporal Distribution Characteristics of Reference Evapotranspiration in Shandong Province from 1980 to 2019" Water 12, no. 12: 3495. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123495

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