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Article

Case Study: Reconstruction of Runoff Series of Hydrological Stations in the Nakdong River, Korea

1
Ministry of Environment, Han River Flood Control Office, Seoul 06501, Korea
2
National Territorial Environment & Resources Research Division, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements, Sejong 30149, Korea
3
Institute of Water Resources System, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea
4
Department of Civil Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3461; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123461
Received: 5 November 2020 / Revised: 30 November 2020 / Accepted: 1 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
Reliable runoff series is sine qua non for flood or drought analysis as well as for water resources management and planning. Since observed hydrological measurement such as runoff can sometimes show abnormalities, data quality control is necessary. Generally, the data of adjacent hydrological stations are used. However, difficulties are frequently encountered when runoff series of the adjacent stations have different flow characteristics. For instance, when the correlation between the up- and downstream locations in which the stations are located is used as the main criterion for quality control, difficulties can occur. Therefore, this study aims to suggest a method to reconstruct an abnormal daily runoff series in the Nakdong River, Korea. The variational mode decomposition (VMD) technique is applied to the runoff series of the three target stations: Goryeong County (Goryeong bridge) and Hapcheon County (Yulji bridge and Jeogpo bridge). These runoff series are also divided into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) that are governed by basin runoff and disturbed flow caused by the hydraulic structure. The decomposition results based on VMD show that the runoff components in a particular station that is influenced by hydraulic structures could be reconstructed using adjacent stations, but the residual mode could not. The runoff reconstruction model using an artificial neural network (ANN), the two “divided” modes, and the residual component is established and applied to the runoff series for the target station (Yulji bridge in Hapcheon County). The reconstructed series from the model show relatively good results, with R2 = 0.92 and RMSE = 99.3 in the validation year (2019). Abnormal runoff series for 2012 to 2013 at the Yulji bridge station in Hapcheon County are also reconstructed. Using the suggested method, a well-matched result with the observations for the period from 2014 onwards is produced and a reconstructed abnormal series is obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: uncertainty; VMD; ANN; runoff quality control uncertainty; VMD; ANN; runoff quality control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kwak, J.; Lee, J.; Jung, J.; Kim, H.S. Case Study: Reconstruction of Runoff Series of Hydrological Stations in the Nakdong River, Korea. Water 2020, 12, 3461. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123461

AMA Style

Kwak J, Lee J, Jung J, Kim HS. Case Study: Reconstruction of Runoff Series of Hydrological Stations in the Nakdong River, Korea. Water. 2020; 12(12):3461. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123461

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kwak, Jaewon; Lee, Jongso; Jung, Jaewon; Kim, Hung S. 2020. "Case Study: Reconstruction of Runoff Series of Hydrological Stations in the Nakdong River, Korea" Water 12, no. 12: 3461. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123461

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