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Article

Developing Pseudo Continuous Pedotransfer Functions for International Soils Measured with the Evaporation Method and the HYPROP System: I. The Soil Water Retention Curve

1
Environmental Sciences Department, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
2
Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Ankara 06110, Turkey
3
Institute of Geoecology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3425; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123425
Received: 24 October 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 6 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Computing for Water and Aquatic Resource Management)
Direct measurements of soil hydraulic properties are time-consuming, challenging, and often expensive. Therefore, their indirect estimation via pedotransfer functions (PTFs) based on easily collected properties like soil texture, bulk density, and organic matter content is desirable. This study was carried out to assess the accuracy of the pseudo continuous neural network PTF (PCNN-PTF) approach for estimating the soil water retention curve of 153 international soils (a total of 12,654 measured water retention pairs) measured via the evaporation method. In addition, an independent data set from Turkey (79 soil samples with 7729 measured data pairs) was used to evaluate the reliability of the PCNN-PTF. The best PCNN-PTF showed high accuracy (root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.043 cm3 cm−3) and reliability (RMSE = 0.061 cm3 cm−3). When Turkish soil samples were incorporated into the training data set, the performance of the PCNN-PTF was enhanced by 33%. Therefore, to further improve the performance of the PCNN-PTF for new regions, we recommend the incorporation of local soils, when available, into the international data sets and developing new sets of PCNN-PTFs. View Full-Text
Keywords: evaporation method; HYPROP; artificial neural networks; soil water retention curve; international soils evaporation method; HYPROP; artificial neural networks; soil water retention curve; international soils
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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, A.; Haghverdi, A.; Öztürk, H.S.; Durner, W. Developing Pseudo Continuous Pedotransfer Functions for International Soils Measured with the Evaporation Method and the HYPROP System: I. The Soil Water Retention Curve. Water 2020, 12, 3425. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123425

AMA Style

Singh A, Haghverdi A, Öztürk HS, Durner W. Developing Pseudo Continuous Pedotransfer Functions for International Soils Measured with the Evaporation Method and the HYPROP System: I. The Soil Water Retention Curve. Water. 2020; 12(12):3425. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123425

Chicago/Turabian Style

Singh, Amninder; Haghverdi, Amir; Öztürk, Hasan S.; Durner, Wolfgang. 2020. "Developing Pseudo Continuous Pedotransfer Functions for International Soils Measured with the Evaporation Method and the HYPROP System: I. The Soil Water Retention Curve" Water 12, no. 12: 3425. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123425

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