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Can Zooplankton Be Entangled by Microfibers in the Marine Environment?: Laboratory Studies

1
Risk Assessment Research Center, South Sea Research Institute, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST), Geoje 53201, Korea
2
Department of Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Korea
3
Oil and POPs Research Group, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST), Geoje 53201, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3302; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123302
Received: 5 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 20 November 2020 / Published: 24 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Microplastics in Soil and Water)
We investigated the probability of copepod entanglement in microfibers in a laboratory experiment. This experiment was inspired by an accidental observation of entangled copepods with microfibers during isolating copepods for grazing experiments. The exposure of microfibers to copepods was designed by applying conditions similar to environmentally relevant concentrations of microfibers to zooplankton in the Yellow Sea as well as highly elevated concentrations of microfibers compared to the previously reported maximum natural concentration. Copepod entanglement in microfibers was reproduced in laboratory. The entanglement was not observed in the condition which simulated the environmental scenario of copepods outnumbering microfibers observed in the Yellow Sea, while it occurred inconsistently in the conditions of the maximum and 10-fold maximum natural concentrations of microfibers. However, consistent entanglement of copepods by microfibers was found in the 100-fold maximum environmental concentration of microfibers. These results suggest that copepod entanglement by microfibers can happen accidentally under the maximum natural concentration of microfibers occurring in the marine environment; however, copepods are likely to be entangled in microfibers consistently if copepods encounter highly enhanced concentration of microfibers. View Full-Text
Keywords: probability; microfibers; entanglement; copepods; Yellow Sea probability; microfibers; entanglement; copepods; Yellow Sea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, J.-H.; Kwon, O.-Y.; Hong, S.H.; Shim, W.J. Can Zooplankton Be Entangled by Microfibers in the Marine Environment?: Laboratory Studies. Water 2020, 12, 3302. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123302

AMA Style

Kang J-H, Kwon O-Y, Hong SH, Shim WJ. Can Zooplankton Be Entangled by Microfibers in the Marine Environment?: Laboratory Studies. Water. 2020; 12(12):3302. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123302

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Youn; Hong, Sang H.; Shim, Won J. 2020. "Can Zooplankton Be Entangled by Microfibers in the Marine Environment?: Laboratory Studies" Water 12, no. 12: 3302. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123302

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