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Open AccessArticle

Livelihood Vulnerability and Adaptation Capacity of Rice Farmers under Climate Change and Environmental Pressure on the Vietnam Mekong Delta Floodplains

1
Center of Water Management and Climate Change, Institute for Environment and Resources, Vietnam National University—Ho Chi Minh City (VNU-HCM), Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
2
Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, Institute for Environment and Resources, Vietnam National University—Ho Chi Minh City (VNU-HCM), Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
3
Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, An Giang University, VNU-HCM, 18 Ung Van Khiem, Long Xuyen City, An Giang 880000, Vietnam
4
Department of Population and Social Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Viet Nam National University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
5
Tra Vinh University, Tra Vinh 940000, Vietnam
6
Southern Institute of Ecology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 1D, TL29 Street, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3282; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113282
Received: 23 October 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 20 November 2020 / Published: 22 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Vulnerability and Resilience in a Changing Climate)
Agricultural production is the primary source of income and food security for rural households in many deltas of the world. However, the sustainability of farm livelihoods is under threat, due to the impacts of climate change and environmental pressure, including shifting hydrological regimes, droughts, water pollution, land subsidence and riverbank erosion. This study evaluated the livelihood sustainability and vulnerability of triple rice farmers on the floodplains of the Vietnam Mekong Delta (VMD). We focused on the perceptions of rice farmers, based on a survey of 300 farmers. Increasing temperatures, drought, water pollution and sediment shortages were the four factors considered by farmers to have the most impact on their agricultural livelihoods. We analyzed farmers’ capacity to sustain their livelihoods and adapt to the changing environment. Results show relatively low vulnerability of rice farmers overall, though many of those surveyed reported very low incomes from rice production. Factors of most concern to farmers were rising temperatures and more frequent droughts. Farmers were already taking steps to adapt, for example, increasing production inputs and investing more labor time, as well as switching production methods. Yet, our findings suggest that policymakers and scientists have a role to play in developing more sustainable adaptation paths. The research clarifies the livelihood vulnerability of triple rice farmers on the VMD floodplains, while more generally contributing to the body of literature on farming and climate change and environmental pressure. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice; vulnerability; sustainability; Mekong; climate change; environmental pressure rice; vulnerability; sustainability; Mekong; climate change; environmental pressure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tran, D.D.; Quang, C.N.X.; Tien, P.D.; Tran, P.G.; Kim Long, P.; Van Hoa, H.; Ngoc Hoang Giang, N.; Thi Thu Ha, L. Livelihood Vulnerability and Adaptation Capacity of Rice Farmers under Climate Change and Environmental Pressure on the Vietnam Mekong Delta Floodplains. Water 2020, 12, 3282. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113282

AMA Style

Tran DD, Quang CNX, Tien PD, Tran PG, Kim Long P, Van Hoa H, Ngoc Hoang Giang N, Thi Thu Ha L. Livelihood Vulnerability and Adaptation Capacity of Rice Farmers under Climate Change and Environmental Pressure on the Vietnam Mekong Delta Floodplains. Water. 2020; 12(11):3282. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113282

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tran, Dung D.; Quang, Chau N.X.; Tien, Pham D.; Tran, Pham G.; Kim Long, Pham; Van Hoa, Ho; Ngoc Hoang Giang, Ngo; Thi Thu Ha, Le. 2020. "Livelihood Vulnerability and Adaptation Capacity of Rice Farmers under Climate Change and Environmental Pressure on the Vietnam Mekong Delta Floodplains" Water 12, no. 11: 3282. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113282

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