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Taking into Account both Explicit Conduits and the Unsaturated Zone in Karst Reservoir Hybrid Models: Impact on the Outlet Hydrograph
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Modeling the Matrix-Conduit Exchanges in Both the Epikarst and the Transmission Zone of Karst Systems

1
Avignon University, INRAE, UMR EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon, France
2
Total, CSTJF, Avenue Larribau, CEDEX 64018 Pau, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3219; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113219
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 9 November 2020 / Accepted: 12 November 2020 / Published: 17 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Modelling in Karst Areas)
Usual conceptual models of karst hydrodynamics highlight the important role of unsaturated subsystems in recharge repartition. However, few of them have been compared with scarce suitable physically-based numerical models. Hybrid models that couple single continuum medium with discrete features promise an improved consideration of karst specificities. Here we evaluate their capability to properly reproduce interactions between a vertical conduit and the surrounding unsaturated matrix. We simulate the response of such a configuration to a single recharge event for various sets of parameters. We show the ability of hybrid models to reproduce the most significant behaviors described in the literature, i.e., transient storage and distribution of recharge, flow concentration towards conduits in the epikarst, and matrix-conduit exchanges varying in time and space. In addition to the explicit conduits, simulating variably saturated flows with the Richards equation and distinguishing the epikarst and the transmission zone are key elements to reproduce most processes. The contrasts between subsystems necessary to observe desired behaviors have been quantified. They are reinforced by the varying matrix saturation that causes realistic competition between matrix and explicit conduits. The study also highlights the need to deepen knowledge of the scaled medium properties we need to know to apply such models to actual cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst; hydrodynamics; unsaturated zone; vadose zone; hybrid model; numerical experiments; matrix-conduit exchange karst; hydrodynamics; unsaturated zone; vadose zone; hybrid model; numerical experiments; matrix-conduit exchange
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dal Soglio, L.; Danquigny, C.; Mazzilli, N.; Emblanch, C.; Massonnat, G. Modeling the Matrix-Conduit Exchanges in Both the Epikarst and the Transmission Zone of Karst Systems. Water 2020, 12, 3219. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113219

AMA Style

Dal Soglio L, Danquigny C, Mazzilli N, Emblanch C, Massonnat G. Modeling the Matrix-Conduit Exchanges in Both the Epikarst and the Transmission Zone of Karst Systems. Water. 2020; 12(11):3219. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113219

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dal Soglio, Lucie; Danquigny, Charles; Mazzilli, Naomi; Emblanch, Christophe; Massonnat, Gérard. 2020. "Modeling the Matrix-Conduit Exchanges in Both the Epikarst and the Transmission Zone of Karst Systems" Water 12, no. 11: 3219. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113219

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