In the process of hydrological forecasting, there are uncertainties in data input, model parameters, and model structure, which cause a deterministic forecasting to fail to provide useful risk information to decision-makers. Therefore, the study of ensemble forecasting and the analysis of hydrological uncertainty are of great significance to guide the actual operation of reservoirs in the flood season. This study proposed a Bayesian ensemble forecast method, comprising of a Gaussian mixture model (GMM), a hydrological uncertainty processer (HUP), and an Autoregressive (AR) model. First, the GMM is selected as the marginal distribution function to estimate the uncertainty of observed and modelled data. Next, the AR model is used to correct the forecast rainfall data. Then, a modified HUP is used to deal with the uncertainty of hydrological model structure and rainfall input data. In the end, the ensemble flow forecast results are composed of the expected values of the posterior distribution obtained by HUP under different rainfall conditions. Taking the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) as a case study, the ensemble flow prediction in the forecast period is calculated by using the above method. Results show that the method proposed in this paper can improve the accuracy of runoff forecasts and reduce the uncertainty of the hydrological forecast.
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