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Article

How does Urban Pollution Influence Macroinvertebrate Traits in Forested Riverine Systems?

1
Unilever Centre for Environmental Water Quality, Institute for Water Research, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Makhanda (Grahamstown) 6140, South Africa
2
Department of Animal Biology (Applied Hydrobiology Unit), Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3111; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113111
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 25 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 5 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Freshwater Communities in Human-Altered Ecosystems)
The influence of urbanization on macroinvertebrate traits was explored in forested rivers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Physico-chemical variables were sampled on a monthly basis alongside macroinvertebrates in 20 sites of 11 rivers spanning 2008–2012. Physico-chemical variables were used to classify the 20 sites into three ecological classes, namely: least impacted sites (LIS), moderately impacted sites (MIS) and highly impacted sites (HIS) using principal component analysis. Our results based on RLQ (R = physico-chemical variables, L = macroinvertebrate taxa and Q = macroinvertebrate traits) and fourth-corner analyses revealed that large body size, grazing and hardshell were positively significantly associated with LIS on the RLQ. They were also either negatively correlated with any two of water temperature, nutrients, BOD5 and flow velocity or positively significantly correlated with increasing DO. Thus, these traits were considered sensitive to urban pollution in forested rivers. Burrowing, predation and pupa aquatic stage, which were positively associated with HIS, were also significantly negatively correlated with increasing DO, and were deemed tolerant of urban pollution in forested rivers. Box plots and a Kruskal–Wallis test revealed that the three sensitive traits were significantly highest at LIS (p < 0.05) except grazing; while the three tolerant traits were significantly highest at MIS (p < 0.05) except burrowing. Overall, this study revealed that urban pollution influences macroinvertebrate traits differently in forested rivers. View Full-Text
Keywords: macroinvertebrate traits; large and small body sizes; potential biological indicator traits; ecological classes; forested riverine systems; urban pollution; RLQ and fourth-corner tests; Niger Delta; Nigeria macroinvertebrate traits; large and small body sizes; potential biological indicator traits; ecological classes; forested riverine systems; urban pollution; RLQ and fourth-corner tests; Niger Delta; Nigeria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Edegbene, A.O.; Arimoro, F.O.; Odume, O.N. How does Urban Pollution Influence Macroinvertebrate Traits in Forested Riverine Systems? Water 2020, 12, 3111. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113111

AMA Style

Edegbene AO, Arimoro FO, Odume ON. How does Urban Pollution Influence Macroinvertebrate Traits in Forested Riverine Systems? Water. 2020; 12(11):3111. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113111

Chicago/Turabian Style

Edegbene, Augustine O.; Arimoro, Francis O.; Odume, Oghenekaro N. 2020. "How does Urban Pollution Influence Macroinvertebrate Traits in Forested Riverine Systems?" Water 12, no. 11: 3111. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113111

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