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Article

Interaction among Controlling Factors on Riverine DIN Export in Small Mountainous Rivers of Taiwan: Inseparable Human-Landscape System

1
Department of Geography, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
2
Center for Ecology and Environment, Tunghai University, Taichung 40799, Taiwan
3
Department of Geography, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50074, Taiwan
4
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 974301, Taiwan
5
Department of Civil and Ecological Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112981
Received: 21 September 2020 / Revised: 16 October 2020 / Accepted: 21 October 2020 / Published: 23 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Impact of Typhoon on Rivers)
Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emission via different pathways has shown prominent impact on aquatic ecosystems for decades, but the effects of interaction among climate-, landscape- and human-associated variables on riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, mainly NO3 and NH4+) export are unclear. In this study, the data of 43 watersheds with a wide range of climate-, landscape- and human-associated gradients across Taiwan were evaluated with partial redundancy analysis (pRDA) to examine their interactive controls on riverine DIN export. Results show that the annual riverine DIN export in Taiwan is approximately 3100 kg-N km−2 yr−1, spanning from 230 kg-N km−2 yr−1 in less disturbed watersheds (eastern and central Taiwan) to 10,000 kg-N km−2 yr−1 in watersheds with intensive human intervention (southwestern and northern Taiwan). NO3 is generally the single dominant form of DIN, while NH4+ renders significance in disturbed watersheds. Nearly all environmental variables display a positive correlation with DIN export, except for landscape setting variables (e.g., slope, area, channel length), which show a negative relationship. In terms of seasonal pattern, climate and human-landscape variables are related to NO3 export independently in the wet season, yet in the dry season climate-human variables jointly dominate NO3 export. Meanwhile, human-landscape (LH) variables (λ1 of LH > 0.60) control NH4+ exports in both seasons, and human-associated (H) variables (λ1 of H = 0.13) have a minor effect on NH4+ exports in dry season. Precisely, the contribution of controlling variables on DIN export vary with species and seasons, indicating water quality management could be time-dependent, which should be taken into consideration for designing mitigation strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN); redundancy analysis (RDA); partial redundancy analysis (pRDA); small mountainous rivers (SMRs); Taiwan dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN); redundancy analysis (RDA); partial redundancy analysis (pRDA); small mountainous rivers (SMRs); Taiwan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, W.-S.; Huang, J.-C.; Chang, C.-T.; Chan, S.-C.; Liou, Y.-S.; Liao, C.-S.; Lee, L.-C.; Lee, J.-Y.; Shih, Y.-T.; Lu, M.-C.; Chen, P.-H. Interaction among Controlling Factors on Riverine DIN Export in Small Mountainous Rivers of Taiwan: Inseparable Human-Landscape System. Water 2020, 12, 2981. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112981

AMA Style

Lee W-S, Huang J-C, Chang C-T, Chan S-C, Liou Y-S, Liao C-S, Lee L-C, Lee J-Y, Shih Y-T, Lu M-C, Chen P-H. Interaction among Controlling Factors on Riverine DIN Export in Small Mountainous Rivers of Taiwan: Inseparable Human-Landscape System. Water. 2020; 12(11):2981. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112981

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Wen-Shiuan; Huang, Jr-Chuan; Chang, Chung-Te; Chan, Shih-Chien; Liou, Ying-San; Liao, Chien-Sen; Lee, Li-Chin; Lee, Jun-Yi; Shih, Yu-Ting; Lu, Meng-Chang; Chen, Pei-Hao. 2020. "Interaction among Controlling Factors on Riverine DIN Export in Small Mountainous Rivers of Taiwan: Inseparable Human-Landscape System" Water 12, no. 11: 2981. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112981

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