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Effects of Tropical Cyclones on Sea Surface Salinity in the Bay of Bengal Based on SMAP and Argo Data

1
College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
2
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou 510301, China
3
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Ocean Remote Sensing, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 2975; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112975
Received: 3 September 2020 / Revised: 21 October 2020 / Accepted: 21 October 2020 / Published: 23 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
This paper uses the Argo sea surface salinity (SSSArgo) before and after the passage of 25 tropical cyclones (TCs) in the Bay of Bengal from 2015 to 2019 to evaluate the sea surface salinity (SSS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) remote sensing satellite (SSSSMAP). First, SSSArgo data were used to evaluate the accuracy of the 8-day SMAP SSS data, and the correlations and biases between SSSSMAP and SSSArgo were calculated. The results show good correlations between SSSSMAP and SSSArgo before and after TCs (before: SSSSMAP = 1.09SSSArgo−3.08 (R2 = 0.69); after: SSSSMAP = 1.11SSSArgo−3.61 (R2 = 0.65)). A stronger negative bias (−0.23) and larger root-mean-square error (RMSE, 0.95) between the SSSSMAP and SSSArgo were observed before the passage of 25 TCs, which were compared to the bias (−0.13) and RMSE (0.75) after the passage of 25 TCs. Then, two specific TCs were selected from 25 TCs to analyze the impact of TCs on the SSS. The results show the significant SSS increase up to the maximum 5.92 psu after TC Kyant (2016), which was mainly owing to vertical mixing and strong Ekman pumping caused by TC and high-salinity waters in the deep layer that were transported to the sea surface. The SSSSMAP agreed well with SSSArgo in both coastal and offshore waters before and after TC Roanu (2016) and TC Kyant (2016) in the Bay of Bengal. View Full-Text
Keywords: SMAP; tropical cyclone; Bay of Bengal; sea surface salinity SMAP; tropical cyclone; Bay of Bengal; sea surface salinity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, H.; Yu, R.; Tang, D.; Liu, Y.; Wang, S.; Fu, D. Effects of Tropical Cyclones on Sea Surface Salinity in the Bay of Bengal Based on SMAP and Argo Data. Water 2020, 12, 2975. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112975

AMA Style

Xu H, Yu R, Tang D, Liu Y, Wang S, Fu D. Effects of Tropical Cyclones on Sea Surface Salinity in the Bay of Bengal Based on SMAP and Argo Data. Water. 2020; 12(11):2975. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112975

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xu, Huabing; Yu, Rongzhen; Tang, Danling; Liu, Yupeng; Wang, Sufen; Fu, Dongyang. 2020. "Effects of Tropical Cyclones on Sea Surface Salinity in the Bay of Bengal Based on SMAP and Argo Data" Water 12, no. 11: 2975. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112975

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