Parameter uncertainty analysis is one of the hot issues in hydrology studies, and the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) is one of the most widely used methods. However, the scale of the existing research is relatively small, which results from computational complexity and limited computing resources. In this study, a parallel GLUE method based on a Message-Passing Interface (MPI) was proposed and implemented on a supercomputer system. The research focused on the computational efficiency of the parallel algorithm and the parameter uncertainty of the Xinanjiang model affected by different threshold likelihood function values and sampling sizes. The results demonstrated that the parallel GLUE method showed high computational efficiency and scalability. Through the large-scale parameter uncertainty analysis, it was found that within an interval of less than 0.1%, the proportion of behavioral parameter sets and the threshold value had an exponential relationship. A large sampling scale is more likely than a small sampling scale to obtain behavioral parameter sets at high threshold values. High threshold values may derive more concentrated posterior distributions of the sensitivity parameters than low threshold values.
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