Next Article in Journal
3D Numerical Investigation of Forces and Flow Field around the Semi-Submersible Platform in An Internal Solitary Wave
Previous Article in Journal
Efficiency Analysis of the Input for Water-Saving Agriculture in China
Open AccessArticle

Spatial Variation of Metallic Contamination and Its Ecological Risk in Sediment and Freshwater Mollusk: Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) (Gastropoda: Thiaridae)

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 80203, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Life Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 810001, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010206
Received: 29 December 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 11 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals in Soil Water System: Challenges and new solutions)
Heavy metal pollution has been on the rise with serious implications for the wellbeing of aquatic ecosystems. Benthic sediments and freshwater mollusk (snail): Mellanoides tuberculata were sampled from five stations for determination of heavy metals concentrations and measurement of antioxidant enzyme activities. The spatial variation was studied using an enrichment factor, potential ecological risk index, and mean probable effect limit quotient (mPELq). From the results, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Co contamination levels were high at stations S3, S4, and S5 with an mPEL quotient of 94.40%. The variation of metal concentration and Enrichment factor were in the order S5 > S3 > S4 > S2 > S1, which was attributed to anthropogenic influences at the catchment due to industrial activities and atmospheric deposition of metals. Station five in this study is downstream and requires the most monitoring and management to prevent several ecological risks of metal pollutants in River Kaduna. View Full-Text
Keywords: metallic contamination; ecological risk; river Kaduna; sediment; mollusk metallic contamination; ecological risk; river Kaduna; sediment; mollusk
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Aljahdali, M.O.; Alhassan, A.B. Spatial Variation of Metallic Contamination and Its Ecological Risk in Sediment and Freshwater Mollusk: Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) (Gastropoda: Thiaridae). Water 2020, 12, 206.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop