Double Exposures: Future Water Security across Urban Southeast Asia
2. Review of Water Security Drivers across Southeast Asia
2.1. Trends and Outlook on Economic Growth
2.2. Impact of Economic Growth on Water Security
2.3. Trends and Outlook on Urbanization
2.4. Impact of Urbanization on Water Security
2.5. Trends and Outlook on Climate Change
2.6. Impact of Climate Change on Water Security
3.1. UM: Focus on the Impact of Disasters on Water Security in Urban Areas
3.1.1. Immediate Impacts of Disasters on Water Security
3.1.2. Long-Term Impacts of Disasters on Water Security and Development
3.2. UM: Additional Effect of Cyclones on the Philippines and Vietnam
3.3. UM: Water Quantity Most Important during Dry Seasons
3.4. LM: Overall Less Water Secure than UM, Water Quality More Important than Quantity in the Short-Term
Conflicts of Interest
|Industry||Quality of H2O Input||H2O Output Pollutants||Country where Industry Is Prominent [25,38]|
|Agricultural Processing ||Assumed to be similar to rice milling: high amount of potable but not high-quality water needed||High organic pollutants, contributes to high TS, Nitrogen, TP, BOD and COD, and pathogens||LAO, MYA, MAL, THA|
|Cement [77,78]||Not potable, used for cooling, mostly recycled within a factory||“No substantial contribution”, possibly TDS||CAM, MYA, THA|
|Chemical Products ||Mostly used for cooling (90% of water intake) and in processes. Since water mostly used for cooling, assumed that high-quality water not required||Oil and grease, High BOD and COD, heavy metals||PHI|
|Construction [80,81,82,83]||Quantity required “minimal” compared to the quantity of water needed for the generation of materials. Removal of vegetation, grading activities, cleaning, concrete mixing and casting, washing, drilling, cleaning, etc., potable water can be used but is not required||Mainly sedimentation, on a lesser scale chemicals, nutrients, oil and grease, metals||CAM, LAO, MYA, PHI|
|Electric/Gas/Water supply [84,85,86,87]||Coal: a large amount of water needed for cooling, but quality is not important||Hydropower: sedimentation, water released may have low DO, either higher or lower water temp|
Coal (majority of PHI): groundwater contamination: arsenic, Hg, heavy metals: Cd, Cobalt, Selenium
|LAO (hydropower) PHI|
|Electronics/Semiconductors Assembly [88,89]||Large quantity of ultrapure water needed||Cl, sulfates, FL, Nitrates, Phosphates, Heavy metals, some organics, cyanide, contributes to high COD||PHI|
|Electric Appliances/Machine Building [90,91,92]||Machinery water use not very high compared to other sectors, electric appliances even more less so. It is assumed that potable water is not required.||Heavy metals, generally low water pollution compared to other manufacturing industries||PHI, THA, VIE, IND|
|Food and Beverage Processing [93,94,95]||High water quality and high quantity needed: further treatment usually required||Strong organic content, contributing to high BOD, TSS||VIE, IND, PHI, THA,|
|Logging, wood and wood Processing [96,97,98]||Cooling saw blades, wood preserving, storm runoff, dusting (from these uses, it is assumed that potable, high-quality water is not needed)||Nitrogen, Phosphorus, organic waste compounds, wood preservation chemicals (chrome, copper, arsenic) contributing to high BOD and COD, increased water turbidity (TSS), oil and grease Note: pollution mostly happens in storm runoff||CAM, LAO, MAL, MYA|
|Metallurgy [99,100]||High water input needed, assumed that it could be of varying quality||Heavy metals, acids, cyanide, organic compounds||VIE|
|Mining [101,102,103]||High water input needed, used in mining and ore processing, can be of varying quality||Sedimentation, heavy metals, acidic water||LAO, MYA, THA, VIE|
|Paper Processing [104,105,106]||Large amount of water needed (pulping, bleaching, and washing), drinking water-quality only needed for some processes, freshwater can be used otherwise||VOCs, Chlorinated organic compounds, Sulfur compounds, Suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus, contributes to high BOD and COD.||VIE|
|Pharmaceuticals ||High-quality water needed for extraction, purification, and washing||Contributes to high BOD and COD, TOC, NH3, TDS, Cl, sulfate, other anions||MAL, MYA|
|Petrochemical [108,109,110,111]||Water intensive, used for distillation, liquid extraction, washing, and cooling, can use water directly from freshwater sources||SS, organic compounds (hydrocarbons), phenols, grease, H2S, NH3, CN−, contributes to high BOD and COD, hardness||IND, MAL|
|Rice Milling ||Large amount of water input needed (parboiling, washing, steaming). From these uses, it is assumed that potable but not high-quality water is needed||BOD, COD, TSS, nitrogen (nitrates, TKN)||CAM|
|Rubber [112,113,114,115]||Large amount of water input needed (mainly used for washing), groundwater can be used treated by sedimentation and filtering||Organic pollution (ex. acetic acid and formic acids, contributing to high BOD and COD), high nitrogen (ammonia), high sulfate||CAM, LAO, MAL|
|Textiles/Apparel [116,117,118]||Large amount of water input needed||Untreated dye, heavy metals (ex. Pb, Hg, Zn), organic pollution, sulfates, contributes to high BOD, COD, some TDS||CAM, IND, THA, VIE|
|Steel [100,119]||Water input-intensive, used in furnaces, cooling, washing, and product isolation. From these uses, assumed that high-quality water is not needed.||Oil and grease, high BOD and COD, NH3-N, organic compounds, TDS, heavy metals, cyanide, acids,||VIE|
|Vehicles [120,121,122,123]||Used for washing and coloring, use freshwater that is further processed in the plant itself||High BOD, COD, heavy metals, oil and grease, organic and inorganic pollutants (phosphate)||IND|
|Country||Water Quality||Water Quantity|
|CAM||Input: High-quality water is not needed for any main industry; potable or non-potable water can be used.|
Output: Sedimentation is most common quality output concern, along with high organic pollution (BOD and COD). Lesser scale: nitrogen, sulfates, heavy metals.
|High amount of water needed in 3/5 top industries.|
|LAO||Input: High-quality water is not needed for any main industry; potable or non-potable water can be used with some processing.|
Output: Sedimentation is the most common quality output concern, along with high organic pollution (BOD and COD). Lesser scale: nitrogen, sulfates, phosphates, heavy metals, acidic water, oil and grease.
|High amount of water needed in 3/5 top industries.|
|MYA||Input: High-quality water only needed for pharmaceutical industries, for others potable or non-potable water can be used with some processing.|
Output: Sedimentation is most common quality output concern, along with high organic pollution (BOD and COD) and nitrogen. Lesser scale: sulfates, phosphates, heavy metals, acidic water, oil and grease.
|High amount of water needed in 2/5 top industries.|
|IND||Input: High-quality water needed for only 1/5 industries, the rest can draw freshwater from sources and process in the plant.|
Output: Organic compounds contributing to high BOD and COD, heavy metals; Lesser scale: sedimentation.
|4/5 industries are water-intensive|
|MAL||Input: High-quality water needed for only 1/5 industries, the rest can draw freshwater from sources and process in the plant.|
Output: Organic compounds contributing to high BOD and COD, Nitrogen, Sulfates Lesser scale: phosphorus, sedimentation.
|3/5 industries are water-intensive|
|PHI||Input: 2/6 top industries require high-quality water|
Output: Heavy metals, Lesser scale: BOD and COD, sedimentation, oil and grease
|4/6 require high quantity of water|
|VIE||Input: Only one requires high-quality water|
Output: Heavy metals, BOD and COD, Sedimentation, Lesser scale: cyanide, acids, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfates
|Almost all industries are water-intensive|
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|% of GDP||% of GDP||% of GDP||% of GDP|
|Cambodia||Garments, Construction, Rice milling, Fishing, Wood and wood products, Rubber, Cement||Trade, Transport and Communications, Real Estate and Business b|
|Lao PDR||Mining (copper, tin, gold, gypsum); Timber, Electric power, Agricultural processing, Rubber, Construction||Wholesale and Retail, Tourism c|
|Myanmar||Agricultural processing; Wood and wood products; Mining (copper, tin, tungsten, iron); Cement, Construction materials, Pharmaceuticals||Wholesale and retail, information and communication d|
|Indonesia||Petroleum and natural gas, Textiles, Automotive, Electrical appliances, Apparel, Footwear||Trade, hotels, and restaurants, transportation and communication, financial services e|
|Malaysia||Rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, Petroleum and natural gas, Light manufacturing, Agriculture processing, Logging, Pharmaceuticals||Real estate, Financial services, Telecommunications f|
|Philippines||Semiconductors and electronics assembly, Food and beverage manufacturing, Construction, Electric/gas/water supply, Chemical products, Radio/television/communications Equipment and apparatus||Trade and repair of goods, Real estate, Financial intermediation g|
|Thailand||Textiles and garments, Agricultural processing, Beverages, Tobacco, Cement, Light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances||Tourism, Financial Services, Wholesale and Retail h|
|Vietnam||Food processing, Garments, Shoes, Machine-building; Mining, Coal, Steel||Tourism, Telecommunications, Wholesale and Retail|
|Urban Pop (% of Total Pop)||Pop. in Urban Areas >1 M (% Total Pop.)||Pop. Below Natl Poverty Line (%)||Gini Coefficient|
|LAO||21.98||35.00||42.90||55.70||N/A||N/A||27.6 b||23.20||0.37 b||0.38 a|
|PHI||46.14||46.91||50.90||61.80||9.46||12.16||26.30||21.60||0.46 d||0.4 a|
|Improved 1 Sani.||Sewer||Improved 2 H2O||Piped H2O||Improved Sani.||Sewer||Improved H2O||Piped H2O||Improved Sani.||Sewer||Improved H2O||Piped H2O|
|2017||94.1||1.3||95.5||88.8||65.0||0.9||72.7||42.9||73.9 *||1.0 *||79.6 *||56.9 *|
|MYA||2001||94.9||10.6||77.9||22.8||77.5||0.6||58.0||5.8||82.2 *||3.3 *||64.0||10.1|
|MAL||2003||98.9||42.2||99.8||96.4||97.1||11.9||98.7||88.0||98.3 *||31.5*||99.4 *||93.4 *|
|PHI||2000||92.7||7.3||89.8||62.1||71.6||1.8||76.9||31.8||82.0 *||4.3 *||82.9 *||45.8 *|
|Freq.||Avg. Pop Affected||Avg. Total Dmg. (‘000 US$)||Est. Total Dmg. (‘000 US$)||Freq.||Avg. Pop Affected||Avg. Total Dmg. (‘000 US$)||Est. Total Dmg. (‘000 US$)||Freq.||Avg. Pop Affected||Avg. Total Dmg. (‘000 US$)||Est. Total Dmg. (‘000 US$)|
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Lorenzo, T.E.; Kinzig, A.P. Double Exposures: Future Water Security across Urban Southeast Asia. Water 2020, 12, 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010116
Lorenzo TE, Kinzig AP. Double Exposures: Future Water Security across Urban Southeast Asia. Water. 2020; 12(1):116. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010116Chicago/Turabian Style
Lorenzo, Theresa E., and Ann P. Kinzig. 2020. "Double Exposures: Future Water Security across Urban Southeast Asia" Water 12, no. 1: 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010116