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Article

Assessment of Constructed Wetlands’ Potential for the Removal of Cyanobacteria and Microcystins (MC-LR)

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CIIMAR—Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos, S/N, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
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Department of Integrative Biology, School of Biosciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu, India
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LAQV/REQUIMTE—Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Politécnico do Porto. CISA/Research Center in Environment and Health, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 400. 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
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Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 790, 4150-171 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010010
Received: 13 November 2019 / Revised: 12 December 2019 / Accepted: 14 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
Microcystis blooms and the subsequent release of hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) pose a serious threat to the safety of water for human and livestock consumption, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture worldwide. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), the most toxic variant of MCs, has been widely detected in a variety of environments such as water, sediments, plants, and many aquatic organisms. Conventional solutions of water treatment are costly, requiring specific infrastructure, as well as specialized personnel and equipment. Therefore, these solutions are not feasible in many rural areas or in the treatment of large reservoirs. In this regard, low-cost and low-technology solutions, such as constructed wetlands (CWs), are attractive solutions to treat surface waters contaminated with toxic cyanobacteria blooms from lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and irrigation systems. In line with this, the main aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of CWs for the treatment of water contaminated with MC-LR produced by Microcystis aeruginosa—LEGE 91094. For that, microcosms (0.4 × 0.3 × 0.3 m) simulating CWs were assembled with Phragmites australis to treat lake water contaminated with Microcystis aeruginosa cells and MCs. Results showed removal percentages of M. aeruginosa cells above 94% and about 99% removal of MC-LR during 1 week treatment cycles. CWs maintained their functions, regardless the presence of MC-LR in the system, and also showed significant removal of nutrients (ammonium ion removal up to 86%) and organic matter (removal reaching 98%). The present work indicates that CWs have the potential for removal of cyanobacterial cells and cyanotoxins, which can be useful for the treatment of eutrophic waters and provide water of sufficient quality to be used, for instance, in agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; microcystins; rhizoremediation; Phragmites australis; water treatment Cyanobacteria; microcystins; rhizoremediation; Phragmites australis; water treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bavithra, G.; Azevedo, J.; Oliveira, F.; Morais, J.; Pinto, E.; Ferreira, I.M.P.L.V.O.; Vasconcelos, V.; Campos, A.; Almeida, C.M.R. Assessment of Constructed Wetlands’ Potential for the Removal of Cyanobacteria and Microcystins (MC-LR). Water 2020, 12, 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010010

AMA Style

Bavithra G, Azevedo J, Oliveira F, Morais J, Pinto E, Ferreira IMPLVO, Vasconcelos V, Campos A, Almeida CMR. Assessment of Constructed Wetlands’ Potential for the Removal of Cyanobacteria and Microcystins (MC-LR). Water. 2020; 12(1):10. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010010

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bavithra, Guna; Azevedo, Joana; Oliveira, Flávio; Morais, João; Pinto, Edgar; Ferreira, Isabel M.P.L.V.O.; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Campos, Alexandre; Almeida, C. M.R. 2020. "Assessment of Constructed Wetlands’ Potential for the Removal of Cyanobacteria and Microcystins (MC-LR)" Water 12, no. 1: 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010010

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