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Open AccessArticle

Spatiotemporal Water Quality Variations in Smaller Water Supply Systems: Using Modified CCME WQI from Groundwater Source to Distribution Networks

1
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Qassim University, Buraydah, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia
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Real Estate Development Fund, AlRass Brach, AlRass, Qassim, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(9), 1884; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091884
Received: 20 August 2019 / Revised: 5 September 2019 / Accepted: 6 September 2019 / Published: 10 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Original Canadian Council of Minster of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) is being used for assessing the water quality of surface water sources and distribution systems on a case by case basis. Its full potential as a management tool for complete water supply systems (WSSs) has yet to be recognized at the global level. A framework is developed using the modified CCME WQI to assess spatiotemporal water quality from groundwater source to treatment and distribution networks in smaller systems. The modified index resolves a limitation of the original index by also evaluating the microbiological water quality parameters which have to be completely absent for meeting desired drinking water quality standards. The framework divides the distribution network in different zones, which are further segregated into districts, to improve the decision-making process. Temporal assessment identifies the seasons with higher probabilities of failures, while the spatial assessment provides an insight on the performance (i.e., Excellent to Poor) of each district in a distribution network. In addition to failure probability, risk mapping gives appropriate attention to the number of consumers in different districts. Application of the framework on two smaller WSSs (population less than 50,000) in Qassim region revealed that the remotely located districts from the treatment facility underperform in comparison to the closely situated districts. Managers can effectively apply the proposed framework to identify the locations and periods of water quality failures in each component (i.e., source, treatment, and distribution) of a smaller WSS for effective utilization of their resources in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere with similar conditions.
Keywords: smaller water supply systems; water quality; CCME WQI; groundwater quality; risk-based water quality assessment; spatiotemporal water quality smaller water supply systems; water quality; CCME WQI; groundwater quality; risk-based water quality assessment; spatiotemporal water quality
MDPI and ACS Style

Haider, H.; Alkhowaiter, M.H.; Shafiquzzaman, M.; AlSaleem, S.S.; Almoshaogeh, M.; Alharbi, F. Spatiotemporal Water Quality Variations in Smaller Water Supply Systems: Using Modified CCME WQI from Groundwater Source to Distribution Networks. Water 2019, 11, 1884.

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