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Open AccessArticle

Enhanced Flocculation Using Drinking Water Treatment Plant Sedimentation Residual Solids

1
Watershed Engineering, San Antonio River Authority, San Antonio, TX 78212, USA
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
3
Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
4
Department of Agriculture & Environmental Science, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102-0029, USA
5
Environment & Construction Services, Zoie LLC, St. Louis, MO 62205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(9), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091821
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Treatment and Removal of Natural Organic Matter)
Inefficient removal of total organic carbon (TOC) leads to the formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) when a disinfectant is added. This study is performed in an effort to develop a simple, non-invasive, and cost-effective technology that will effectively lower organic precursors by having water utilities reuse their treatment residual solids. Jar tests are used to simulate drinking water treatment processes with coagulants—aluminum sulfate (alum), poly-aluminum chloride (PACl), and ferric chloride and their residual solids. Ten coagulant-to-residual (C/R) ratios are tested with water from the Missouri River at Coopers Landing in Columbia, MO versus alluvial ground waters. This treatment results in heavier floc formation and leads to improved sedimentation of organics and additional removal of aluminum and iron. An average of 21%, 28%, and 33% additional TOC removal can be achieved with C/R ratios <1 with alum, PACl, and ferric chloride, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: treatment residual solids; coagulation; flocculation; TOC removal; turbidity; disinfection by-products treatment residual solids; coagulation; flocculation; TOC removal; turbidity; disinfection by-products
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MDPI and ACS Style

Poleneni, S.R.; Inniss, E.; Shi, H.; Yang, J.; Hua, B.; Clamp, J. Enhanced Flocculation Using Drinking Water Treatment Plant Sedimentation Residual Solids. Water 2019, 11, 1821.

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