Next Article in Journal
When Green Infrastructure Turns Grey: Plant Water Stress as a Consequence of Overdesign in a Tree Trench System
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Deficit Irrigation on Shallow Saline Groundwater Contribution and Sunflower Productivity in the Imperial Valley, California
Previous Article in Special Issue
Enhanced Flocculation Using Drinking Water Treatment Plant Sedimentation Residual Solids
Open AccessArticle

Charge Neutralization Mechanism Efficiency in Water with High Color Turbidity Ratio Using Aluminium Sulfate and Flocculation Index

1
Civil Engineering Division, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos 12228-900, Brazil
2
Centro Universitário, Instituto Mauá de Tecnologia, São Caetano do Sul 09580-900, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020572
Received: 5 January 2020 / Revised: 31 January 2020 / Accepted: 1 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Treatment and Removal of Natural Organic Matter)
Most of the water supplied in Brazil comes from water streams that may have higher values for apparent color than turbidity. Treatability trials were performed for color and turbidity removal to evaluate the advantages of coagulation during the charge neutralization mechanism when compared to sweep flocculation for water with those characteristics. There were three types of trials: conventional Jar Test with raw water, with and without filtration, and in a pilot Water Treatment Plant, direct downward filtration, with synthetic water. Auxiliary equipment such as Continuous Flocculation Monitoring Equipment (CFME) and image analysis were used to evaluate the growth of flocs. In the Jar Tests experiments, similar levels of color (61.49%) and turbidity (61.30%) removal were observed, with a lower dosage of coagulant (46 mg/L) in the charge neutralization mechanism compared to the ones with sweep flocculation (58.22% for color and 54.73% for turbidity removal with 52 mg/L of aluminium sulfate). Similar results were found on pilot plant. At filtration rates of 180 and 300 m3 m−2 day−1, sweep flocculation mechanism had shorter filtration cycle (<5 m3) compared to other mechanisms. Therefore, a change in the operation of Water Treatment plants that use a coagulant dosage associated with sweep flocculation can bring advantages such as the reduction of coagulant consumption and sludge productions, as well as the increase of chlorine disinfection and filtration cycles. View Full-Text
Keywords: coagulation mechanisms; charge neutralization; apparent color; flocculation index; treatability trials coagulation mechanisms; charge neutralization; apparent color; flocculation index; treatability trials
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Cruz, D.; Pimentel, M.; Russo, A.; Cabral, W. Charge Neutralization Mechanism Efficiency in Water with High Color Turbidity Ratio Using Aluminium Sulfate and Flocculation Index. Water 2020, 12, 572.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop