In Taiwan, the steep landscape and highly vulnerable geology make it difficult to predict soil erosion and sediment transportation via variable transport conditions. In this study, we integrated the Taiwan universal soil loss equation (TUSLE) and slope stability conditions in the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) as the SWAT-Twn model to improve sediment simulation and assess the sediment transport functions in the Chenyulan watershed, a small mountainous catchment. The results showed that the simulation of streamflow was satisfactory for calibration and validation. Before model calibration and validation for sediment, SWAT-Twn with default sediment transport method performed better in sediment simulation than the official SWAT model (version 664). The SWAT-Twn model coupled with the simplified Bagnold equation could estimate sediment export more accurately and significantly reduce the overestimated sediment yield by 65.7%, especially in highly steep areas. Furthermore, five different sediment transport methods (simplified Bagnold equation with/without routing by particle size, Kodoatie equation, Molinas and Wu equation, and Yang sand and gravel equation) were evaluated. It is suggested that modelers who conduct sediment studies in the mountainous watersheds with extreme rainfall conditions should adjust the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) factors and carefully evaluate the sediment transportation equations in SWAT.
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