Next Article in Journal
Nitrogen Retention Effects under Reservoir Regulation at Multiple Time Scales in a Subtropical River Basin
Next Article in Special Issue
Modeling Sugar Beet Responses to Irrigation with AquaCrop for Optimizing Water Allocation
Previous Article in Journal
Morphological Patterns at River Contractions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of the Dual Crop Coefficient Approach in Estimating Evapotranspiration of Drip-Irrigated Summer Maize in Xinjiang, China
Open AccessArticle

Characterization and Simulation of a Low-Pressure Rotator Spray Plate Sprinkler Used in Center Pivot Irrigation Systems

1
Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, CSIC, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain
2
Inter-American Institute of Water Technology and Sciences, Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, San Cayetano de Morelos, 50200 Toluca, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1684; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081684
Received: 15 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Management of Irrigation System)
Spray sprinklers enable to operate at low pressures (<103 kPa) in self-propelled irrigation machines. A number of experiments were performed to characterize the water distribution pattern of an isolated rotator spray plate sprinkler operating at very low pressure under different experimental conditions. The experiments were performed under two pressures (69 kPa and 103 kPa) and in calm and windy conditions. The energy losses due to the impact of the out-going jet with the sprinkler plate were measured using an optical technique. The adequacy to reproduce the measured water distribution pattern under calm conditions of two drop size distribution models was evaluated. A ballistic model was used to simulate the water distribution pattern under wind conditions evaluating three different drag models: (1) considering solid spherical drops; (2) a conventional model based on wind velocity and direction distortion pattern, and (3) a new drag coefficient model independent of wind speed. The energy losses measured with the optical method range from 20% to 60% from higher to lower nozzle sizes, respectively, for both evaluated working pressures analyzing over 16,500 droplets. For the drop size distribution selected, Weibull accurately reproduced the water application with a maximum root mean square error (RMSE) of 19%. Up to 28% of the RMSE could be decreased using the wind-independent drag coefficient model with respect to the conventional model; the difference with respect to the spherical model was 4%. View Full-Text
Keywords: rotator spray sprinkler; low-pressure; ballistic simulation; modified drag model; energy losses rotator spray sprinkler; low-pressure; ballistic simulation; modified drag model; energy losses
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Robles Rovelo, C.O.; Zapata Ruiz, N.; Burguete Tolosa, J.; Félix Félix, J.R.; Latorre, B. Characterization and Simulation of a Low-Pressure Rotator Spray Plate Sprinkler Used in Center Pivot Irrigation Systems. Water 2019, 11, 1684.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop