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Experimental Investigations and CFD Modeling of Contaminant Intrusion in a Water Network during Transient Events

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain P.O. Box 15551, UAE
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Khartoum, Khartoum P.O. Box 321, Sudan
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Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
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College of Applied and Supporting Studies, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
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School of Engineering, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071425
Received: 22 June 2019 / Revised: 6 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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PDF [3588 KB, uploaded 11 July 2019]
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Abstract

Intrusion in drinking water networks (DWN) can be triggered by transient low-pressure events. This intrusion may result in the contamination of drinking water supplied to consumers, which may have major health impacts. This research aims to investigate the influence of a DWN’s operating parameters on the intrusion and progression of the contaminant in a pilot drinking water network setup. Results show that the minimum time required for the contaminant to begin entering the system was influenced by the system operating pressure. Faster initial intrusion times were observed under low operating pressure. In addition, the crack size influenced the time required for the contaminant to fully intrude the system. Similarly, the time required for the contaminant to reach certain points in the DWN was influenced by the operating pressure. These results were verified using two additional tools; a high-speed camera was used to monitor the contaminant transient progression through the DWN under different pressures; and computational fluid dynamics modeling was used to calculate the corresponding contaminant concentration. The results suggest that the ability of the system to quickly stabilize its operating pressure would reduce the probability of a contaminant intrusion into the DWN. View Full-Text
Keywords: contaminant intrusion; transient low pressure; CFD; drinking water network contaminant intrusion; transient low pressure; CFD; drinking water network
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Mahmoud, M.; Farahat, A.; Hamouda, M.A.; Al-Zahrani, M.; Sharif, M.N.; Sadiq, R. Experimental Investigations and CFD Modeling of Contaminant Intrusion in a Water Network during Transient Events. Water 2019, 11, 1425.

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