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Simulation and Analysis of the Water Balance of the Nam Co Lake Using SWAT Model

1
State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou 730000, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
CAS Centre for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4
Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
5
Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650000, China
6
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan 66000, Pakistan
7
Division of Hydrology Water-Land Resources in Cold and Arid Regions, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071383
Received: 26 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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PDF [9410 KB, uploaded 5 July 2019]
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Abstract

Rapid change of alpine lakes in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a clear manifestation of regional-scale climate variability that can be investigated by quantifying the regional hydrological cycle. The degree-day model (DDM) coupled with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model were used to quantify the water budget of the Nam Co Lake over the period of 2007 to 2013. Driven by local observed meteorological data, the coupled model was successfully validated with the observed lake levels (with R2 = 0.65, NSE = 0.61, and PBIAS = −2.26). Analysis of the water balance revealed that rapid enlargement of the Nam Co Lake was primarily associated with precipitation increase while glacier melt played its role as the potential secondary driver in lake expansion. However, temporal analysis of lake expansion displayed that supremacy of precipitation and glacier melt interchanged between the years. It was found that average annual relative contributions of the precipitation, including direct precipitation on the lake, and glacier melt to the lake were 57% (or 667 mm), and 43% (or 502 mm), respectively. Besides, it was observed that annual values of actual evapotranspiration (ET) from the lake, glaciated, and non-glaciated subbasins were 615 mm, 280 mm, and 234 mm respectively. The average annual glacier mass balance (GMB) of the Nam Co basin was −150.9 millimeter water equivalent (mm w.e.). The relatively high amount of glacier melt was a consequence of the substantial increase in annual temperature in the lake basin. This work is of importance for understanding the rapid water cycle in the TP under global warming. Moreover, this work will also be helpful in monitoring and sustaining the local ecosystem and infrastructure, which is under risk due to rapid lake expansion as a result of climate change in the TP. View Full-Text
Keywords: SWAT model; degree-day model; water balance; glacier mass balance; Nam Co basin SWAT model; degree-day model; water balance; glacier mass balance; Nam Co basin
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Adnan, M.; Kang, S.; Zhang, G.; Saifullah, M.; Anjum, M.N.; Ali, A.F. Simulation and Analysis of the Water Balance of the Nam Co Lake Using SWAT Model. Water 2019, 11, 1383.

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