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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

The Logarithmic Law of the Wall in Flows over Mobile Lattice-Arranged Granular Beds

Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
CERIS—Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(6), 1166;
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Worked Bedload: Hydrodynamic and Mass Transport)
PDF [7145 KB, uploaded 27 June 2019]


The purpose of the present paper is to provide further insights on the definition of the parameters of the log-law in open-channel flows with rough mobile granular beds. Emphasis is placed in the study of flows over cohesionless granular beds composed of monosized spherical particles in simple lattice arrangements. Potentially influencing factors such as grain size distribution, grain shape and density or cohesion are not addressed in this study. This allows for a preliminary discussion of the amount of complexity needed to obtain the log-law features observed in more realistic open-channel flows. Data collection included instantaneous streamwise and bed-normal flow velocities, acquired with a two-dimensional and two-component (2D2C) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The issue of the non uniqueness of the definition of the parameters of the log-law is addressed by testing several hypotheses. In what concerns the von Kármán parameter, κ , it is considered as flow-independent or flow-dependent (a fitting parameter). As for the geometric roughness scale, k s , it results from a best fit procedure or is computed from a roughness function. In the latter case, the parameter B is imposed as 8.5 or is calculated from the best fit estimate. The analysis of the results reveals that a flow dependent von Kármán parameter, lower than the constant κ = 0.40 , should be preferred. Forcing κ = 0.40 leads to non-physical values of k s and would imply extending the inner layer up about 50% of the flow depth which is physically difficult to explain. Considering a flow dependent von Kármán parameter allows for coherent explanations for the values of the remaining parameters (the geometric roughness scale k s , the displacement height Δ , the roughness height z 0 ). In particular, for the same transport rate, the roughness height obtained in a natural sediment bed is much greater than in the case of bed made of monosized glass spheres, underlining the influence of the bed surface complexity (texture and self-organized bed forms, in the water-worked cases) on the definition of the log-law parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: logarithmic law of the wall; von Kármán parameter κ; bedload; granular beds; drag-reducing flows logarithmic law of the wall; von Kármán parameter κ; bedload; granular beds; drag-reducing flows

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Antico, F.; Ricardo, A.M.; Ferreira, R.M.L. The Logarithmic Law of the Wall in Flows over Mobile Lattice-Arranged Granular Beds. Water 2019, 11, 1166.

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