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Experimental Investigation of Purging Saline Solution from a Dead-End Water Pipe

1
Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, IMSIU, Riyadh 11432, Saudi Arabia
2
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
3
Irrigation and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11517, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050994
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 12 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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PDF [6101 KB, uploaded 12 May 2019]
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Abstract

Salty groundwater might find its way into dead end legs of a water distribution network and thus efforts are required to clean such parts of the network. This paper reports, for the first time, the results of a visual study for laboratory experimental investigation on the purging process of saline water from a dead-end water pipe using fresh water. Three purging locations and a number of purging flow rates were considered to identify the effect of purging location and purging flow rate on the time required to completely remove saline water from the dead-end pipe. Image processing analysis techniques were used to capture data from the experimental lab setup. A universal gray-intensity to salinity curve was experimentally found to formulate a color intensity to salinity mapping. A script code based on Octave numerical package was written for this regard to determine the temporal variation of the total dissolved salt (TDS) value within the dead leg pipe. It is generally noted that, as Reynolds number gets higher, the time removal ratio (t/ts) gets bigger. It is also noted that, as a purging location gets farther from the dead end, the time required for the complete removal of TDS increases exponentially. View Full-Text
Keywords: purging contamination; water pipe; cleaning water network; image processing; removal time purging contamination; water pipe; cleaning water network; image processing; removal time
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Elgamal, M.; Farouk, M. Experimental Investigation of Purging Saline Solution from a Dead-End Water Pipe. Water 2019, 11, 994.

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