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Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Controlling Factors of the Lhasa River under the Influence of Anthropogenic Activities

1
State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, Jiangxi, China
2
School of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, Jiangxi, China
3
The Second Geological Brigade of the Tibet Autonomous Region Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development Bureau, Lhasa 850000, Tibet, China
4
School of Earth Sciences, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, Jiangxi, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050948
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Anthropogenic activities have had diversiform impacts on the surrounding river and environments. A study on the surface water of the Lhasa River Basin was undertaken to assess its hydrogeochemical characteristics under the influence of anthropogenic activities. A total of 16 samples collected from the Lhasa River were analyzed for pH, electric conductivity (EC), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), total dissolved solids (TDS), major cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+), major anions (Cl, SO42−, HCO3, and NO3), and trace metals. The pH of the analyzed water samples varied from 6.40 to 9.10, indicating alkaline in nature. The EC values varied from 77.3 to 213 μs/cm while the TDS values varied from 73.37 to 217.55 mg/L. HCO3 and SO42− are the dominant anions while Ca2+ and Na+ are the dominant cations in the river water. The concentration of alkaline earth metals (Ca2+ + Mg2+) exceed the alkali metals (Na+ + K+) and HCO3 dominates over SO42− + Cl concentrations in the majority of the surface water samples. Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 and Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl are the dominant hydrogeochemical facies in the surface water of the area. The water chemistry is mainly controlled by rock weathering with secondary contribution from anthropogenic sources. The content of trace elements in the Lhasa River is low, basically at the natural background value. The high content of individual elements is mainly due to the mineral resource exploitation and geothermal resources in the basin. Countermeasures and attention should be payed to these aspects, such as the construction of water conservancy facilities, urban economic development, the development of mining activities, and sewage and wastewater discharge, so as to protect the water quality and sustainable development of the Lhasa River Basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lhasa River Basin; hydrogeochemical characteristics; anthropogenic activities; trace metals Lhasa River Basin; hydrogeochemical characteristics; anthropogenic activities; trace metals
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Qin, H.; Gao, B.; He, L.; Hu, X.; Dong, L.; Sanjay, D.; Dong, A.; Sun, Z.; Wan, W. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Controlling Factors of the Lhasa River under the Influence of Anthropogenic Activities. Water 2019, 11, 948.

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