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Open AccessArticle

Hydrochemical Properties of Groundwater Used for Korea Bottled Waters in Relation to Geology

1
Geologic Environment Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 34132, Korea
2
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Andong National University, Andong 36729, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051043
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 20 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Abstract

Bottled waters have been becoming increasingly popular in Korea over the last two decades due to the high demand for safe drinking water. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater is essential for understanding quality properties of bottled waters. We investigated hydrochemistry of 60 manufacture factories for bottled waters in relation to geology. The mean EC value is highest in groundwaters of Ogcheon metamorphic rocks (213.6 μS/cm) > Precambrian gneiss (177.8 μS/cm) > Cretaceous granite (160.4 μS/cm) > Jurassic granite (131.3 μS/cm) > Quaternary Jeju Island volcanic rocks (99.2 μS/cm). The groundwater types are commonly classified as Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, or Ca-Mg-HCO3 types depending on bed rocks. Based on correlation matrix, the groundwater chemistry was controlled by water–rock interactions. We established relationships between groundwater compositions and bedrock geology in Korea. View Full-Text
Keywords: bottled waters; hydrochemical characterization; groundwater types; correlation matrix; water–rock interactions bottled waters; hydrochemical characterization; groundwater types; correlation matrix; water–rock interactions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lee, B.D.; Oh, Y.H.; Cho, B.W.; Yun, U.; Choo, C.O. Hydrochemical Properties of Groundwater Used for Korea Bottled Waters in Relation to Geology. Water 2019, 11, 1043.

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