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Open AccessArticle

Flood Hazard Scenarios of the Sirba River (Niger): Evaluation of the Hazard Thresholds and Flooding Areas

1
DIST, Politecnico di Torino & Università di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy
2
DIATI, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy
3
Université Grenoble Alpes, IRD, CNRS, Grenoble INP, IGE, 38000 Grenoble, France
4
Direction de l’Hydrologie (DH), Ministère de l’Hydraulique et de l’Assainissement du Niger, Niamey B.P. 257, Niger
5
Institute of Biometeorology—National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR), 50145 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051018
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Flood Management: Concepts, Methods, Tools and Results)
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PDF [6139 KB, uploaded 15 May 2019]
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Abstract

In Sahelian countries, a vast number of people are still affected every year by flood despite the efforts to prevent or mitigate these catastrophic events. This phenomenon is exacerbated by the incessant population growth and the increase of extreme natural events. Hence, the development of flood management strategies such as flood hazard mapping and Early Warning Systems has become a crucial objective for the affected nations. This study presents a comprehensive hazard assessment of the Nigerien reach of the Sirba River, the main tributary Middle Niger River. Hazard thresholds were defined both on hydrological analysis and field effects, according to national guidelines. Non-stationary analyses were carried out to consider changes in the hydrological behavior of the Sirba basin over time. Data from topographical land surveys and discharge gauges collected during the 2018 dry and wet seasons were used to implement the hydraulic numerical model of the analyzed reach. The use of the proposed hydraulic model allowed the delineation of flood hazard maps as well the calculation of the flood propagation time from the upstream hydrometric station and the validation of the rating curves of the two gauging sites. These significative outcomes will allow the implementation of the Early Warning System for the river flood hazard and risk reduction plans preparation for each settlement. View Full-Text
Keywords: Middle Niger River Basin; Sirba River; Sahel; flood hazard; hazard threshold; non-stationarity; rating curves; hydraulic numerical model; HEC-RAS; Early Warning System Middle Niger River Basin; Sirba River; Sahel; flood hazard; hazard threshold; non-stationarity; rating curves; hydraulic numerical model; HEC-RAS; Early Warning System
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Massazza, G.; Tamagnone, P.; Wilcox, C.; Belcore, E.; Pezzoli, A.; Vischel, T.; Panthou, G.; Housseini Ibrahim, M.; Tiepolo, M.; Tarchiani, V.; Rosso, M. Flood Hazard Scenarios of the Sirba River (Niger): Evaluation of the Hazard Thresholds and Flooding Areas. Water 2019, 11, 1018.

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