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Water 2019, 11(4), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040756

Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation Schedules for Some Major Crops in Southern Iraq

1
Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Diwaniyah 54001, Iraq
2
Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah 58001, Iraq
3
Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water–Food–Energy Nexus)
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Abstract

The climate of Iraq is of the subtropical semi-dry type; however, the country was rich in water resources until a few decades ago. Climate change and the construction of many dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the neighboring countries have caused water shortages and poor water quality. Now, there is a need to decrease consumption, improve management of water resources, and determine the water requirements of the major crops because agriculture is the first consumer of water in Iraq. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) CROPWAT 8.0 simulation software and the CLIMWAT 2.0 tool attached to it have been used in this research for Dhi-Qar Province in southern Iraq to find the crop water requirements (CWRs) and irrigation schedules for some major crops. The CROPWAT Penman–Monteith method was used to calculate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil conservation (S.C.) method was used to estimate the effective rainfall. The study results showed that ET0 varied from 2.18 to 10.5 mm/day and the effective rainfall varied from 0.0 to 23.1 mm. The irrigation requirements were 1142, 203.2, 844.8, and 1180 mm/dec for wheat, barley, white corn, and tomatoes, respectively. There is a higher water demand for crops during the dry seasons (summer and autumn) and a lower demand during the wet seasons (winter and spring). The total gross irrigation and the total net irrigation were 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for wheat, 175.2 mm and 122.6 mm for barley, 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for white corn, and 203.3 mm and 142.3 mm for tomatoes. This study proved that the CROPWAT model is useful for calculating the crop irrigation needs for the proper management of water resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: Iraq; CROPWAT; irrigation schedules; crop water requirement Iraq; CROPWAT; irrigation schedules; crop water requirement
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ewaid, S.H.; Abed, S.A.; Al-Ansari, N. Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation Schedules for Some Major Crops in Southern Iraq. Water 2019, 11, 756.

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