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Insecure Security: Emergency Water Supply and Minimum Standards in Countries with a High Supply Reliability

1
Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Bundeswehr University Munich; Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg, Germany
2
Institute for Environment and Human Security, United Nations University, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany
3
Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance, Provinzialstrasse 93, 53127 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(4), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040732
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Humanitarian Contexts)
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Abstract

Drinking water supply is at the core of both, humanitarian action in times of crisis, as well as national policies for regular and emergency supply. In countries with a continuous water supply, the population mostly relies ingenuously on the permanent availability of tap water due to high supply standards. In case of a disruption in the drinking water infrastructure, minimum supply standards become important for emergency management during disasters. However, wider recognition of this issue is still lacking, particularly in countries facing comparably fewer disruptions. Several international agencies provide guideline values for minimum water provision standards in case of a disaster. Acknowledging that these minimum standards were developed for humanitarian assistance, it remains to be analyzed whether these standards apply to disaster management in countries with high supply standards. Based on a comprehensive literature review of scientific publications and humanitarian guidelines, as well as policies from selected countries, current processes, contents, and shortcomings of emergency water supply planning are assessed. To close the identified gaps, this paper flags potential improvements for emergency water supply planning and identifies future fields of research. View Full-Text
Keywords: disaster; drinking water; high-income country; preparedness; supply standards; water supply disaster; drinking water; high-income country; preparedness; supply standards; water supply
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bross, L.; Krause, S.; Wannewitz, M.; Stock, E.; Sandholz, S.; Wienand, I. Insecure Security: Emergency Water Supply and Minimum Standards in Countries with a High Supply Reliability. Water 2019, 11, 732.

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