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Perturbation Indicators for On-Demand Pressurized Irrigation Systems

Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Building Engineering and Chemistry, Polytechnic of Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy
Land and Water Resources Management Dept., Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM)—Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 558;
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Issues in Water, Agriculture and Food)
PDF [3848 KB, uploaded 28 March 2019]


The perturbation in hydraulic networks for irrigation systems is often created when sudden changes in flow rates occur in the pipes. This is essentially due to the manipulation of hydrants and depends mainly on the gate closure time. Such a perturbation may lead to a significant pressure variation that may cause a pipe breakage. In a recent study, computer code simulating unsteady flow in pressurized irrigation systems—generated by the farmers’ behavior—was developed and the obtained results led to the introduction of an indicator called the relative pressure variation (RPV) to evaluate the pressure variation occurring into the system, with respect to the steady-state pressure. In the present study, two indicators have been set up: The hydrant risk indicator (HRI), defined as the ratio between the participation of the hydrant in the riskiest configurations and its total number of participations; and the relative pressure exceedance (RPE), which provides the variation of the unsteady state pressure with respect to the nominal pressure. The two indicators could help managers better understand the network behavior with respect to the perturbation by defining the riskiest hydrants and the potentially affected pipes. The present study was applied to an on-demand pressurized irrigation system in Southern Italy. View Full-Text
Keywords: pressurized irrigation systems; on-demand operation; perturbation; unsteady flow; hydrant risk indicator; relative pressure exceedance pressurized irrigation systems; on-demand operation; perturbation; unsteady flow; hydrant risk indicator; relative pressure exceedance

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Derardja, B.; Lamaddalena, N.; Fratino, U. Perturbation Indicators for On-Demand Pressurized Irrigation Systems. Water 2019, 11, 558.

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