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Correlation Analysis Between Groundwater Decline Trend and Human-Induced Factors in Bashang Region

1
Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116034, China
2
Department of Water Resources Research, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
3
Information Center, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100038, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030473
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 24 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Abstract

In Northern China, many regions and cities are located in semi-arid regions, and groundwater is even the only source of water to support human survival and social development. Affected by human activities, the Bashang (BS) region (including Zhangjiakou City and part of Xilin Gol League) have showed a significant decline in groundwater levels in recent years. However, in the BS region, the causes for the decline in groundwater level were not clear. In this study, we used time series of multi-source data Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to analyze vegetation and groundwater changes based on linear regression models. The variation trends of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, derived from MODIS) and GWSA (groundwater storage anomaly, derived from GRACE and GLDAS) indicated the increasingly better vegetation in the agriculture planting areas, partially degraded vegetation in the grassland, and the declining groundwater level in the whole study region. In order to assess the impact of human-induced factors on vegetation and groundwater, the R U E s e a s o n a l calculation model was proposed based on RUE (rain use efficiency) in this study. The R U E s e a s o n a l calculation results showed that human-induced factors promoted the growth of vegetation in agricultural areas and accelerated the consumption of groundwater. In addition, we also obtained temporal and spatial distributions of human activities-affected regions. The area affected by human-induced factors in the south-central study area increased, which accelerated the decline in groundwater levels. From bulletin data, we found that the increasing tourists and vegetable production are respectively the most important factors for the increased consumption of urban water and agricultural water. Based on multi-source data, the influences of various human-induced factors on the ecological environment were explored and the area affected by human-induced factors was estimated. The results provide the valuable guidance for water resource management departments. In the BS region, it is necessary to regulate agricultural water use and strengthen residential water management. View Full-Text
Keywords: RUE; GRACE; MODIS; GLDAS; human-induced factor RUE; GRACE; MODIS; GLDAS; human-induced factor
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Hao, Z.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, H.; Zhao, H.; Wang, H. Correlation Analysis Between Groundwater Decline Trend and Human-Induced Factors in Bashang Region. Water 2019, 11, 473.

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