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Bioremediation of Waste Water to Remove Heavy Metals Using the Spent Mushroom Substrate of Agaricus bisporus

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, 26004 Logroño, La Rioja, Spain
2
Department of Mining Exploitation and Prospecting, University of Oviedo, 33004 Oviedo, Principality of Asturias, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030454
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

The presence of heavy metals in waste water brings serious environmental pollution that threatens human health and the ecosystem. Bioremediation of heavy metals has received considerable and growing interest over the years. Thus, this paper presents the use of the Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS) of Agaricus bisporus cultivation as a bioremediating agent to remove heavy metals that are present in industrial waters. These metals include chromium, lead, iron, cobalt, nickel, manganese, zinc, copper and aluminium. In particular, this study analyses the performance of SMS bioreactors with different groups of heavy metals at various concentrations. Between 80% and 98% of all contaminants that were analysed can be removed with 5 kg of SMS at hydraulic retention times of 10 and 100 days. The best removal efficiencies and longevities were achieved when removing iron (III), nickel and cobalt from contaminated water at a pH of 2.5. These results suggest that SMS can successfully treat waste water that has been contaminated with heavy metals. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioremediation; heavy metals; Spent Mushroom Substrate; sulphate reduction bioremediation; heavy metals; Spent Mushroom Substrate; sulphate reduction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Corral-Bobadilla, M.; González-Marcos, A.; Vergara-González, E.P.; Alba-Elías, F. Bioremediation of Waste Water to Remove Heavy Metals Using the Spent Mushroom Substrate of Agaricus bisporus. Water 2019, 11, 454.

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